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Chapter 8

CH.8 Cognition PSYB57.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB57H3
Professor
Dwayne Pare
Semester
Fall

Description
CH8 CONCEPTS AND GENERIC KNOWLEDGE Family ResemblanceWittgenstein proposed that members of a category have a family resemblance to each other Features that are common in the family if we consider family members 2 or even 3 at a time we can usually find some shared attributes There are common features but the identity of those common features depends on what subgroup of the family youre considering hair color shared for these family members eye shape shared by those family members and so on Prototypes and Typicality EffectsDefinitions set the boundaries for a category If it ha certain attributes then it is inside the boundaries and if it doesnt have defining attributes then its outside the categoryPrototype Theory best way to identify a category to characterize a concept is to specify the center of the category rather than the boundariesPrototype is the ideal for a category Prototypes and Graded MembershipMembership in a category depends on resemblance to the prototype and resemblance is a matter of degree As a result membership in the category is not a simple yes or no decision instead its a matter of more or lessCategories on this view have a graded membership objects close to the prototype are better members of the category than objects farther from the prototype Testing the Prototype NotionSentence verification task participants presented with a succession of sentences and must indicate whether each sentence is true or false What were interested in is how quickly participants can do this task and it turns out that their speed of response varies from item to item within a category According to a prototype perspective participants mke these judgements by comparing the thing mentioned eg penguin to their prototype for that category their bird prototype When there is much similarity btwn the test case and prototype participants can mke their decisions quickly judgements abt items more distant from the prototype take more timeProduction task ask ppl to name as any birdsdogs as they an According to a prototype view they will do this task by first locating their bird or dog prototype in
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