Textbook Notes (363,559)
Canada (158,426)
Psychology (9,578)
PSYB57H3 (369)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Gabriela Ilie

Chapter 1 Attention: mental focus on stimulus Perception: interpreting sensory information Pattern Recognition: classifying stimulus into a category Memory: storage facilities and retrieval of conigition Recognition: see as familiar Recall: determine from previous experience Reasoning/problem solving: techniques and strategies to figure things out Knowledge representation: knowledge accumulated in a life time Language: verbal sounds (nonverbal cues/signals) Decision making: deal with a situation Several cognitive processes occur simultaneously or very close in time o Impossible to specify which process Plato Memory storage is like writing on a wax tablet Mind is an aviary where birds are flying, and memory is catching a bird, sometimes you catch, sometimes only nearby bird Empiricism Locke, Hume, Stuart Mill o Locke: Tabula Rasa blank slate o Hume: mind is in the body Empiricism: Knowledge comes from experience empirical information collected from senses Recognizes difference in genetics, but human nature is malleable and changeable. People are the way they are because of previous learning Association: mechanism of learning (Locke). Two distinct ideas or experiences that join because they occur to be presented at the same time. Environment plays a role in determining ones intellect and abilities Natvism Plato, Descartes, Kant Nativism: Role of native ability in learning and acquisition of abilities Differences in original, biological endowment Cognitive functions built in and hardwired like short term memory. Qualim: essence of the mind Structuralism Wundt, Titchener, Baldwin Wundt: first institute for research in experimental psychology want to discover science of the mind: laws and principles of our conscious o Wundt wanted to find the mental elements to describe complex mental phenomena Principles of Physiological Psychology James Baldwin: first psychological laboratory in Canada o Mental development in children, influence on Piaget Introspection: what is the mind made of influenced by a lab setting, cannot abstract pure essence (many extra variables). Report on basic elements of consciousness, not internal perception but experimental self observation Wundt method: Present observers with stimuli and ask to describe conscious experiences raw materials of consciousness were sensory o Conscious thought or ideas could be defined in four properties Mode: visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory Quality (colour, shape texture) Intensity Duration Wundt believe that people could detect the inner workings of mind, structuralism: is focus on the elemental components of mind conscious experience Structuralism: Elemental components of the mind Functionalism William James The Principles of Psychology o Explanation of our experience why does our mind work the way it does? Functionalism: the way the mind works has great deal to do with function Habit: flywheel of society, mechanism to keep behaviour within bounds o Inevitable and powerful force avoid bad habits, establish good ones seize on opportunities to act on resolution and to put fort effort to keep the faculty of effort alive. Do not allow exceptions Functionalist drew on Darwin evolutionary theory and extend to biological conceptions of adaptions Functionalist study in real life situation belief that organisms in whole real life tasks should be subject. (contrast with structuralist who believe lab setting is needed for true nature of the mind) Function more important than content Behaviourism Classical conditioning, instrumental conditioning (Pavlov, Thorndike) Rejects introspection - untestable References to unobservable and subjective mental states and processes were banished study of behaviour Introspection is subjective, and unable to resolve disagreements. Watson regarded mental phenomena as simple physiological responses. Banishing mental phenomena was not helpful, but encouraged thinking measures and methods helped develop more protocols. BF Skinner believed in mental images, and they were subjects of study and were not different from behaviourial events. o Rejected mental representations (internal depictions of information), which he says are merely internal copies of external stimuli Triggered by external stimuli, functional relationship Gestalt Psychology Wertheimer, Koffka, Kohler 1. Psychology had to be analyzed and studied in their entirety and not its parts 2. Mind imposes structure and organization on stimuli, and organizes into whole rather than discrete parts. 3. Melody is not individual sounds -> melodi
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