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PSYB57H3 (366)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5

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Gabriela Ilie

Chapter 5 • Memory involves encoding (acquiring information) and retrieval (the calling to mind of previous stored information) • Clive Wearing: musician example for amnesia after encephalitis o Some memory abilities were spared • Encoding occurs when information is translated into a form that cognitive processes can use – held in storage for retrieval o Forgetting is when we cannot retrieve information Types of Memory • Modal model of memory: information is received, processed and store differently for each kind of memory o Unattended information presented quickly: sensory memory o Attended information: short term memory (20-30s)  STM aka primary memory, short term storage STS o Information needed for longer periods of time: long term memory  Secondary memory, long term storage LTS Sensory memory • Separate sensory memory for each modality – visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, tactile o Icon, and echo – visual and auditory is primary research The Icon • Sperling: presented display to a group of people and ask them to recall. People could report only 4 or 5 of the 12 letters –forget as they were recalling • Partial report technique: use of multiple choice o Inform participants only recall one row but not know which row until a low/medium/high tone was presented  Regardless of tone, people can remember 9/12 letters, and data suggested the visual store could hold about 9 items briefly • Brief visual memory = icon • Averbach: icon can be erased by other stimuli presented immediately – masking The Echo • Moray: participants given a 4 eared listening task o 1 condition: report all letters they had heard o 2 condition: report only the letters of a particular channel  partial reports respond to more letters • Crowder: echo has a larger capacity than icon – echos can last longer, 20s • Suffix effect: present a list auditory – recall of last few items is hindered • Recall cue: suffix – functions as an auditory mask, since if the suffix is a beep or tone or visual, not much effect – greater the auditory similarity, greater the effect o Telephone operaters say have a nice day may disrupt recall of phone # • Sensory memories are modality specific • Visual capacity is larger than auditory but the length of time information is longer for auditory • Information that is stored is relatively unprocessed – physical aspects rather than meaningful are dealt with o Sensory memory is useful in the world as it guarantees a minimum time during which information is presented with us Short term memory • Serial position effect: people recall more words at the beginning or end of a list than the middle o Primacy effect: improved recall at beginning o Recency effect: improved recall for the end of the list • Rehearsal: store items into LTM o if words are presented too fast, primacy disappears and recency appears o recency effect is likely from STM or sensory memory  if another task is introduced, recency effect disappears • STM only lasts for a short while – 1-2min if rehearsal is not prevented Shot term Store – Capacity • George miller: 7 units +- 2 is the maximum number of independent units we can store in STM – capacity of the STm • Overcome limitation by chunking – individual units into larger o Chunking requires knowledge Short term store – coding • Coding is the way information is mentally represented • Conrad: participants with consonants for recall o Letters presented visually – errors likely to be closer to sound o Mental representation must have been acoustic rather than visual • Baddley: same effect when stimuli were words o Similar sounding words made for poor immediate recall, but not similar meaning – reverse for delayed recall • Acoustic code is the dominant in STM in hearing people Store term Store – Retention Duration • Brown: information is lost from STM in 20s if not rehearsed o Retention duration • Brown-Peterson task: participants presented with a 3-consonant trigram and a digit one and count backwards out loud by 3s to prevent rehearsal o Count backward for 3 seconds = 80% recall o Count for 18s = 7% recall o Memory trace – encoded mental representation of to be remembered information not rehearsed  Decays in about 20 seconds o Interference: some information can be displaced by other information  Brown-Peterson task: counting task may prevent participants from short term storage  Keppel: proactive interference: one trial of practice can hurt subsequent memory  Wickens: Release from proactive interference • If new and very distinct information were presented, interference would be sharply reduced Short Term Store – Retrieval of Information • Parallel search: simultaneously search all elements of a list • Serial search: search each element individually o Self terminating search: stops when match is found o Exhaustive search: even when match is found, scan all items in set • Sternberg experimental task: o present participants with 7 or fewer letters and are encoded and held in STM called the memory set o After set in memory, a readiness indicator and then recall the probe and the participant was to determine if the probe was in the memory set o Results show for serial exhaustive search  People with exceptional memory faster, slow for seniors Long term memory • Store information for indefinite period of time Long term memory – capacity • Capacity is virtually unlimited • Landauer: quantitative answer o size of human memory is equal to the number of synapses in the cerebral cortex of the brain – 10^13 synapses, so 10^13 bits of information o 10^20 bits of information – number of neural impulses, electrical messages transmitted within the brain during a lifetime  too high, since not every neural impulse results in memory Long Term memory – Coding • errors made in recalling information are semantic confusions • Baddeley: acoustic similarity produce little effect on performance, but list of semantically similar was harder to learn o Acoustic similarity affects STM, semantic similarity affects LTM Long Term memory – retention duration • Some information can last for decades or a lifetime • Bahrick: forgetting curves for knowledge of Spanish o Forgetting was fast in the first 3 years, then flat for 3 decades, and then a final declined at about 30-35 years Long Term memory – forgetting • Ebbinghaus: study of memory o nonsense syllables: stimulus controlled for contamination from previous learning o presented at a rate hundreds of lists of these syllables to himself o day after day, memorized tested and record results o Trying to look for number of repetitions needed for perfect recall, the nature of forgetting, effects of fatigue on learning, and widely spaced vs. closely spaced practice o Forgetting curve – graph plot time to relearn a list of nonsense syllables after initial learning followed by retention interval of varying time  The more the forgetting, more effort it would take to relearn a list, and less forgetting, the less effort to relearn • Actually forgetting is not linear: rapid at first then levels off • Interference not decay, accounts for forgetting. o Material cannot be retrieved is just “buried” • Paired associates learning – hear a list of pairs of words – present one of the list, and the participant is ask to recall the pair word o Proactive interference, Learn AB, learn AC, recall AC = harder o Retroactive interference: subsequently learned material lowers the probability of recalling earlier material • Anderson: how does interference work o Retrieval cue – points to and leads to recovery of a target memory  More possible targets associated with the cue, the more competition, the more complicated to find them o Fan effect: the more participants study facts about a concept, the time to retrieve a fact increases o Forgetting may be more of a side effect than shortcoming  May be beneficial to forget voluntarily Long term memory – retrieval of information • Categorization: material organized into categories i
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