Textbook Notes (367,974)
Canada (161,538)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYB57H3 (366)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9

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Gabriela Ilie

Chapter 9Difficult to build computer systems that can understand language as a 4 year oldLanguages are bottom updata driven or topdown proccesesexpectations Language can be automatic and intentionalLanguage has two necessary characteristics regular governed by rulesgrammar and is productive infinite combination of thingsoHuman language includes arbitrarinesslack of necessary resemblance of word or sentence that it refers to and discretenesssystem can be subdivided into recognizable parts sentence to words words to soundsBees dance do not communicatelack arbitrariness information is indicated quite literally and is restricted to food so its not productiveoBird songs also not languagesChimpanzees can be taught to use symbols or signs to make requests or label objects Sue Savage Rumbaugh pygmy chimps can learn to use symbols spontaneously to communicate and learn by watching understands and learn to understand EnglishStructure of LanguageLanguages have different soundsphonemesoStudy in which phonemes can be combined is phonologyoPutting the sounds in a coherent way to form meaning is morphologyMorphemes are the smallest meaningful units of language and can be wordsoDetermine role a word plays in a sentenceword endings prefixes tense markers form a sentenceSyntaxstructure of a sentence rule for putting together sentences and phrasesSemanticsstudy of meaning Conversation need give and takepragmatics expectations attention and assumptions of listener and speakerGrammar set of rules for a languagegrammatical context not good languageOur knowledge of rules is not explicit cannot articulate the rules or are not consciously aware of themimplicit we somehow follow themPrescriptive rules how we should talk can often be articulated even if violatedoDescriptive rules are hard to articulateLinguistic competence underlying linguistic knowledge that lets people produce and comprehend their language knowledgeoNot always evident and many factors interfere with language useLinguistic performance reflect linguistic competence under ideal conditionsoReal life such condition is never achievedLanguage is localized in various areas of the brainoUsed for expression of thought establishing social relationships communication and clarifying ideas
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