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Chapter 6

Textbook PSYB57 - Chapter 6.docx

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Dwayne Pare

PSYB57: Memory and Cognition Chapter 6: Interconnections between Acquisition and Retrieval Learning as Preparation for Retrieval  Retrieval paths have a point A to point B Context-Dependent Learning  Context-dependent learning o Learning the cold = better recall in the cold for the info. Learned  Ex: divers learning material in the cold  The diver will form some sort of memory connections between these thoughts and the materials he’s trying to learn  The cold triggers certain thoughts, those thoughts can trigger the target memories o Setting will allow them to use the connections they established earlier o Study: tested in a quiet or noisy environment  Article read in quite did best if tested in quiet  Article read in an noisy environment did better if tested in a noisy environment o Not the physical context but the psychological context Changes in your Approach to the Memory Materials  Recall performance is best if your state at the time of testing matches your state at the time of learning  Context reinstatement – improved memory performance if we re-create the context that was in place during learning  The context has its effect only because it influences how you think about the materials to be remembered  Retrieval cue – help to recall each word  Meaning leads to better memory o Thought about meaning at the time of learning remembered about 50% more than people who thought about the sound o Better in test if the cues provided by the experimenter concerned meaning  thought about sound, did better with a cue concerning the word’s sound  an advantage for thinking about meaning, an advantage for matched learning and test conditions o match effect wins over the levels-of-processing effect Encoding Specificity  brain contains target information and the highways leading to the information o highways = memory connection  Influence your search for the target info.  Can change the meaning of what is remembered o Ex: piano “lifted” is better with heavy cue, piano “tuned” is better with nice sound cue  the cue was effective only if it was congruent with what was stored in memory PSYB57: Memory and Cognition  encoding specificity – this label remind us that what you encode is indeed specific, not just the physical stimulus as it was encountered, but the stimulus together with its context  what was learned was the broader, integrated experience The Memory Network  node becoming activated when it has received a strong enough input signal o energy will spread out from the just-activated node via its associations, and this will activate the nodes connected to the just-activated node o as more and more activation arrives at a particular node, the activation level for that node increases o activation level will reach the node’s response threshold  we say that the node fires  firing node has 2 effects o the itself will be a source of activation o will summon attention to that node  what it means to “find” a node within the network  subthreshold activation: below the response threshold o activation is assumed to accumulate, the two subthreshold inputs may add together, or summate, and bring the node to threshold o node partially activated recently is already warmed up, a weak input will be sufficient to bring node to threshold  as each node becomes activated and fires, it serves as a source for further activation, spreading onward through the network o spreading activation  do not “choose” at all how the activation spreads, activation begins at starting point and goes in all direction, flowing through whatever connections are in place Retrieval Cues  question-plus-hint accomplishes more than the question by it self Semantic Priming  summation of threshold activation o weakly activated + weakly activated = can activate the target nodes  ex: lexical-decision task  shown series of letter-sequence on a computer screen o some sequence spell words, some aren’t words  participants respond yes if both were words but no if one of words weren’t “real” words  trials with related words produce semantic priming o “priming” is used to indicate that a specific prior event will produce a state of readiness (and hence faster responding) later on  Another form of priming is repetition priming o Two words in the pair related in meaning = semantic priming PSYB57: Memory and Cognition  Participants’ lexical-decision responses were faster by almost 100ms if the stimulus words were related, so that the first word could prime the second in the fashion we just described  People have the option of “shutting down” some of this spread if they are convinced the wrong nodes are being activated  Spreading activation is a crucial mechanism – central role in retrieval, helping us understand why memory connections are important and so helpful Different Forms of Memory Testing  Recognition: information is presented to you and must decide whether it’s the sought-after information or not  Differences between recall v. recognition o Recall  Requires memory search  Comes up with sought-after item on your own o Recognition  Hybrid  “remember seeing the image to the word”  Making recognition based on recall  Don’t recall seeing the word but familiar = source memory  Source memory: no recollection of the source of current knowledge but have a sense of familiarity o You attribute this familiarity to the earlier encounter  Attribution Familiarity and Source Memory  Familiarity is distinct from source memory o Possible to have familiarity without source memory and vice versa o Ex: familiarity without source memory  You see someone, where have I seen her before? – you don’t know, but she’s familiar  Source memory wit
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