Textbook Notes (362,755)
Canada (158,052)
Psychology (9,545)
PSYB57H3 (369)
Dwayne Pare (122)
Chapter 1

Memory&Cognition Textbook notes Chapter 1 to Chapter 6

21 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Dwayne Pare

Chapter 1 The Foundations of Cognitive psychology The scope of cognitive psychology Cognitive psych is the study of knowledgeStudies memories attention and concentration and how decision is madeBroad disciplines Perceptionattn to items Language Knowledgeconcept formation problem solving processes involved win it how to problem solve correctly and efficientlyA scientific way of studying the mindhow we thinkA Betsy wanted to bring Jacob a paper She shook her fridge It made no sound She went to look for her mother vs B Betsy wanted to bring Jacob a present She shook her piggy bank It made no sound She went to look for her motherIn this example B makes sense and A is incoherent We understand that to buy something eg present we need money and we would generally find that where we put our money eg piggy bank when shook makes a sound when theres money This exemplifies not only how memory and understanding play an important role outside academics but that memory brings the context needed for understanding Patient HM Brain surgery to relieve epilepsyUnable to form new memories but remembered events before his operationThis is evident that working memory seems to stay intact even with certain brain damages because he was able to converse and recall intellectuallyProblems of memory loss o Inability to adjust emotionally HM couldnt grieve because his memory was too short to allow him to adjust to news processed an experience repeatedly as if it were new couldnt grieve dead uncle o No sense of self HM Had little sense of self because he couldnt remember whether his past actions were right or wrong So he couldnt make any judgements about himselfo Inability to converse read or experience anything that requires contextual help from memory to be understood eg shaking the piggy bankmoney History 1 Introspection look win study of conscious experiences by observing and record the content of our own mental lives and the sequence of our own experience Coined by Wilhelm Wundt father of experimental psych and studentEdward Bradfor Titchener Saw it as distinct from philosophy or bioBelieved psych needed to focus on conscious mental events feelings thoughts perceptions and recollections so they suggested pplintrospecto They stressed introspectors must be trainreport on their experiences w minimal interpretation Use particular vocab to describe obs Problems with introspection Tells us nothing about unconscious events Thoughts arent directly observable and are impossible to test objectively and some thoughts are unconscious making introspection limited as a research tool So to study the unconscious processes scientifically we look to Behaviourism st2 Behaviourism Behaviourist movement 1 half of C20th uncovered principles of how behaviour changes in response to stimuli ie The stimuli Rewards and punishment and learning theoryOvercame the limitations of subjective introspection by Focusing on observable behaviours Behavioursand stimuli are objective data meaning theyre measurable recordable physical events unlike thoughts in introspectionProbs the 50s ostimulusresponse accounts are not the same for everyone because we interpret and understand situations differently from each other So studying the objective situation itself is not a wholesome study to behaviour as there are other underlying factors besides natural behaviour Different stimuli cause same B eg pass salt vs salt please Result is the samesalt is received Same stimuli elicits diff B saying pass the salt win a story doesnt make one pass the salt bc the context is a story is being told and not a request So although the stimulus ie same words is used the behaviour is differentFrom introspection and Behaviourism experimental psychologists learned that Introspective methods for studying mental events arent scientific but we need to study mental events to understand b 3 Cognitive Revolution Transcendental Method of Immanual Kant Aka inference to best explanation bc you work backward from observations to determine cause o From behaviourism we know we must study mental processes but from introspection we know these processes are invisible But mental processes have VISIBLE consequences we can studyo Study the visible effects made by invisible mental processes to develop and test hypothesis about what the process was Used more in science and allows for theories to be objectively tested and conclusions made about mental processes wout knowing whats going on in the brain o An analogy can be made to a police detective using clues to figure out how a crime was committed The crime commited mental process evidence leftvisible consequence that can be studied to come up with hypothesis of how the crime occurred o An analogy can also be made to a physicist studying electrons which cannot be directly seen The electrons themselves mental process their reactionvisible o Cognitive psychologists study mental events indirectly through stimuli and responses They develop hypotheses about mental events and design new experiments Research in Cognitive Psychology An exampleWorking MemoryWorking memory WM is temporary memory storage which stores the info youre actively working on The info is easy to access o Not a specific brain area but rather a bunch of brain mechanisms processing information through the senses and depending on how its processed it puts into longterm mem oShortterm memworking mem Working mem and long termdebated whether its the same or 2 separate memThe Span test measures WM capacity o WMs capacity is small and so info here is easier to get to bc less things o Capacitys Usually 7itemsevidence theres a limit Tested by asking ppl to repeat a list of wordsnumbers and increasing the list till they cant repeat ito Chunking information helps one retain more information Eg remembering 1234 as 12 and 34easier to recallWM is not unitary one single unit Its a system with a central executive at the centre running WMo CE has Assistant lowlevel components that acts as storage freeing CE to work effectively Eg CEyou Assistantpaper You write your thoughts on the paper without having to worry about losing that info Then you can review it easily because its stored on the sheet for easy accesso Articulatory Rehearsal looplowlevel assistants hypothesized as part of the WMS This loop draws on subvocalized covertsilent speech you silently repeat the info to yourself which serves to create a record in the phonological buffer Materials in this buffer then fade but they can be refreshed by another cycle of covert speechSo with the info in this loop the Central executive can continue other tasksEg memorise a list of numbers then continue reading After you are still able to recall them The numbers were stored in the loop freeing Central executive to continue reading1 Launch Loop via subvocalization silent speech repeat info to self Central executive needs to launch this but it then turns to other thingsinner voice holds the info now not Central executive
More Less

Related notes for PSYB57H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.