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PSYB57H3 (369)
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Chapter 5-10

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Dwayne Pare

PSYB57Chapter 5 The Acquisition of Memories and the WorkingMemory SystemThe Route into MemoryFor many years theorizing in cognitive psychology was done by information processingTheorizing within this approach focused on the process through which info was perceived and then moved into memory storageA simplified version of the information processing model was the modal modelUpdating the Modal ModelInformation processing requires different kinds of memorySensory memoryiconicechoic memoryshortterm memorylongterm memoryShortterm memoryworking memoryLongterm memoryrepository that contains all knowledge and beliefsInformation has to pass working memory in order to become long termHow do working memory and longterm memory differoWorking memory is limited in size and longterm memory is vastoGetting info into working memory is easyoGetting info out of working memory is easy finding info in longterm memory can beeffortful and slowoContents of working memory are fragileWorking Memory and LongTerm Memory One Memory or TwoFree call procedurepatients hear a series of words and are told to repeat as many as they can remember in any order121530 words is the average number of words rememberedFirst few words are extremely likely to be rememberedprimacy effectLast few words are likely to be rememberedrecency effectWhen participants hear the first word they rehearse it several times to themselves memory rehearsal and continue to rehearse each word until each word starts to get less and less attentionThe early words have a greater chance of being transferred into LTM since more time and rehearsal was devoted to themAn activity interpolated between the list and recall essentially eliminates the recency effect but it has no influence elsewhere in the listSlowing the list presentation should have no effect on working memory performanceA Closer Look at Working MemoryFunction of Working MemoryDigit span test can be used to test working memoryDigit Span7 2 chunks packagesChunking process has a cost that it takes effort to repackage the materials and with some amount of attention spent in this way less attention is available for rehearsing these itemsThrough practice a persons chunking strategy can be changed by not the capacity of the working memory itselfOperation SpanWorking memory is like a box how much space is there in the box traditional viewWorking memory in the modern conception is thought to be more dynamic and best thought of as a status rather than a placeModern theorists measure the memory capacity in terms of operation span a procedure that explicitly measures working memory when it is workingReading span test is used1oParticipants read aloud series of sentences and then repeat the last words of the sentences until the limit is locatedoLimit defines working memory capacity WMCPerformance with this test is more likely to reflect efficiency with which working memory will operate in natural settingPeople with a larger span should do better in tasks that require coordination of different pieces of infooPeople with greater WMC have an advantage in many settingsThe WorkingMemory SystemCentral executive runs our mental operationsCentral executive is needed for the work in working memoryExecutive has helpersoVisuospatial buffer storing visual materialoArticulatory rehearsal loop storing verbal materialThe Central ExecutiveCentral executiveexecutive control processThe executive control processes allow us to make goals and helps us implement those goals but it can only work at one task at a timeEntering LongTerm Storage The Need for EngagementTwo Types of RehearsalMaintenance rehearsalfocus on the toberemembered items with little thought given about what the items mean or how they are related to each otheroProvides no long term benefitsRelationalelaborative rehearsalthinking about what the toberemembered items mean and how theyre related to each otheroSuperior to maintenance rehearsalIf you think about something in a mindless and mechanical fashion the items will not be established in memoryThe Need for Active EncodingIn a study participants were given a succession of words to memorize and their brain activity was recorded during this initial presentationThe brain scans were divided into 2 typesoThose showing brain activity during the encoding of words that were rememberedlater on in a subsequent testoThose showing activity during encodingof words that were forgotten in the testActivity levels during encoding were higher for the laterremembered words than they were for the laterforgotten wordsThis confirms that whether a word is remembered or not depends on persons mental activity when the encounter the word in the first placeIncidental Learning Intentional Learning and Depth of ProcessingIntentional learningdeliberate learning with the intention that the learned info will be tested later onIncidental learninglearning in the absence of any intention to learnThe intention to learn doesnt add too much to the learning memory can be just as good without the intention provided that you approach the materials in the right wayA study showed that deeper processing leads to much better memoryIts a matter of the approachand the manner of engagement that determines whether memory will be excellent or poor later on2The Intention to LearnThe intention to memorize has an indirect impact which arises from the fact that when people are trying to memorize they use the strategy that they think is the bestIntention does matter because someone who has no intention to learn may end up doing maintenance processing rather than elaborative processingIntention to learn leads people to approach the materials on a certain fashion and its the approach that matters for attention not the intentionThe Role of Meaning and Memory ConnectionsConnections Promote RetrievalAttention to meaning may help to retrieve the memory later onTask of learning is not merely a matter of placing info into longterm memory learning needs to establish an appropriate indexingOne of the main chores for memory acquisition is to lay the groundwork for memory retrievalConnections allow one memory to trigger another and establishing those connections is a large part of what happens during learningAttention to meaning involves thinking about relationshipsConnections are what really matter for memoryElaborate EncodingPaying attention to meaning forces you to think about the relationships among ideas which allows memory connections to be made which then guide the search through memory laterDeep processing paying attention to meaning does promote memory but it is not the only factor that has this benefit deep and elaborate processing leads to better recall than deep processing aloneConnections provide retrieval pathsOrganizing and MemorizingIt was thought that the processes of organizing and memorizing were inseparable we memorize well when we discover the order within the materialMnemonicsAll involve organizationFirst letter mnemonics visualization strategies and Pegword systemsOrganizing improves recall mnemonics work because they impose an organization on the materials to be remembered establishing connections between the material and some other easily remembered structureMnemonic use involves a tradeoffoMore attention focused on 12 memory connections means less attention spent on thinking about other connections including other connections that might help you understand the materialoTradeoff is troubling if trying to memorize meaningful materialoMust seek a strategy that leads to multiple connections between the material this will lead to better learning and retrievalOrganization promotes memoryUnderstanding and MemorizingOptimal organization of complex materials is dependent on understandingyou remember best what you understand bestIf understanding is important for memory then we should expect that the higher someones grade in a course the more likely that person is to remember the course contents even may years laterThe better your understanding the better the memory will be3
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