Textbook Notes (367,747)
Canada (161,363)
Psychology (9,685)
PSYB57H3 (366)
George Cree (102)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Textbook Notes

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George Cree

PSYB57-10W-W01 - How the Brain Gives Rise to the Mind Explain what cognitive psychology is (pp. 2-3). Cognition is the internal interpretationtransformation of stored information. Cognitive psychology includes: Perception, emotion, representation, encoding, working memory, attention, executive processes, decision making, motor cognitionmental simulation (setting up our responses) language. Explain who was involved in the early evolution of cognitive psychology, from philosophy to introspection to behaviorism (pp. 3-7). Philosopher Plato (427-347BC) - memories are like etching on a wax tablet, people differ in their harness and purity of the wax. Rene Descartes (1596-1650) - distinction between mind and body, mind is qualitatively distinct form body. John Locke (1632 - 1753) - contents of mind, thoughts is a series of mental images. George Berkeley (1685 - 1753) - abstract concepts (justice, truth) could not be conveyed effectively by images storing information cannot be limited to mental images. Birth of scientific study of mental activity (introspection): Wilhelm Wundt (Germany) (1832 1920) - focused in understanding consciousness - the content of consciousness can be approached by analogy to the way chemists approach the structure of molecules 1. By characterizing basic sensations and feelings 2. Finding the rules whereby such elements are combined Edward Titchener (1867 - 1927) - student of Wundt - extended his approach of feelings and sensations to all mental activity 1. mental activity can be broken down into more basic operation (perception colour, location, shape) 2. developed objective methods for assessing mental activity (measuring the time needed for people to make decisions) Oswald Kulpe (1862 - 1915) - mental images do not always accompany mental activity - mental image is signaled by experience of perceiving when the sensory input is absent - we make decisions not knowing how Behaviourism: Psychology should focus purely on the immediately observable: stimuli, responses, and the consequences of those responses. - Clark L. Hull (1884 - 1952) - internal events are inferred directly from behaviour (motivation) - B. F. Skinner (1904 - 1990) - reject absolutely all discussion of internal events Understand how and why the cognitive movement was predicted upon computers (pp. 7-11). Researchers seized on the computer as a model for the way in which human mental activity takes place; the computer was a tool that allowed researchers to specify the internal mechanisms that produce behaviour. For a full understanding we must distinguish between a functional level of analysis, and a physical level of analysis; and not between software and hardware. www.notesolution.com
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