Textbook Notes (362,755)
Canada (158,052)
Psychology (9,545)
PSYB57H3 (369)
George Cree (102)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Textbook Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
George Cree

PSYB57-10W-W05 - Encoding and Retrieval from Long-Term Memory Define long-term memory, and understand the divisions between declarative (explicit) and nodeclarative (implicit) memory (pp. 193-195). Memory: the internal repository of stored information. Long term memory: information that is acquired in the course of an experience and that persists so that it can be retrieved long after the experience is past. 2 General types of long term memory. 1. DeclarativeExplicit and Nondeclarative (Implicit) 1. Declarative Memory consist episodic memory and semantic memory a. episodic memory: memory of events b. semantic memory: knowledge about things in the world (facts) - Tests that assess declarative memory are termed explicit memory tests - Highly flexible: multiple piece of information uniform form 2. Nondeclarative memory: Nonconscious forms of long-term memory hat are expressed as change in behaviour without any conscious recollection. Tests termed implicit memory tests. - test measures performance and not description of the content of memory. - do not require medial temporal lobe structures that are important to declarative memory Explain the case of H.M., and discuss how it relates to the discovery of the dissociations between different forms of memory (pp. 195-201, 211-214). HM 5 yrs old bicycle accident unconscious for 5 mins 7 yrs old minor epileptic episodes ultimately progressed major seizures (could not be controlled my medicine) 27 yrs old bilateral removal of he medial temporal lobes - hippocampus, amygdala and much of his Medial Temporal Cortices were removed - seizure under control - devastating loss of memory - LT before surgery was preserved (both semantic and episodic) - suffers severe anterograde amnesia (unable to remember information after brain damage) - HM can remember a short list of number for 30 seconds. - shows that working memory does not depend on medial temporal lobe structure. - working memory: information that is maintained over a period of seconds or minutes. Identify the structures involved in declarative memory, namely those of the medial temporal lobe (pp. 196-197). Episodic and semantic memory depends on a particular set of brain structures in the medial temporal lobe. - Hippocampus - Surrounding entorhinal - Perirhinal - Parahippocampal cortices Medial temporal lobes are not necessary for all types of LTM (eg. HM. mirror tracing) (non declarative) Distinguish between anterograde and retrograde amnesia (pp. 198-199). Anterograde Amnesia: inability consciously to remember information encountered after brain damage. Applies to both episodic and semantic knowledge. Retrograde Amnesia: the forgetting of events that occurred before the damage to the brain. - HMs Retrograde Amnesia is temporally graded: the closer an event had occurred to his surgery, the more likely it is to have been forgotten. - shows that memory dont permanently depend on the MTL, since he can still remember events from childhood. www.notesolution.com
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