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Chapter 3

Chapter 3. Perceiving Objects and Recognizing Patterns

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Gabriela Ilie

Chapter 3. Perceiving Objects and RecognizingPatterns Saturday, January 29, 2011 3:39 PM Perception: the interpretation of sensory information to yield a meaningful description or understanding. { Central problem of perception is explaining how we attach meaning to the sensory information we receive. { Subdivided into visual, auditory, olfactory, gustatory, and haptic perception categories. { Distal stimulus: an object, event, or pattern as it exists in the world. { Proximal stimulus: reception of information and the registration by a sense organ - for example, retinal images in the case of vision. { Retina: a layer of visual receptor cells at the rear of the eyeball. Retinal image: a proximal stimulus for vision, consisting of the projection of light waves reflected from stimuli and projected to a surface at the back of the eye. { Percept: the outcome of a perceptual process; the meaningful interpretation of incoming information. { Size constancy: the phenomenon that ones perception of an object remains constant even as the retinal image of the object changes size (for example, because the object has moved closer or farther away from the perceiver). { Pattern recognition: the classification of a stimulus into a category. One of the most important aspects of visual perception has to do with how we interpret stimulus arrays as consisting of objects and backgrounds. Form perception: the process by which the brain differentiates objects from their backgrounds. Subjective contours: illusory outline created by certain visual cues that lead to erroneous form perception. The existence of this phenomenon suggests that perception is an active constructive process. Gestalt principles of perceptual organization: laws that explain the regularities in the way people come to perceptual interpretations of stimuli. The emphasis is on the apprehension of the whole structures rather than on the detection and assembly of parts of structures. { Principle of proximity - we group together things that are nearer to each other. { Principle of similarity - we group together elements that are similar to each other. { Principle of good continuity - we group together objects whose contours form a continuous straight line or curved line. { Principle of closure - we tend to mentally fill the gap to see a closed complete whole figure. { Principle of common fate - we group together things that move together. Law of Pragn
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