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Canada (158,426)
Psychology (9,578)
PSYB57H3 (369)
George Cree (102)
Chapter 4

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University of Toronto Scarborough
George Cree

Chapter 4Paying AttentionSelective ListeningShadowing Participants hear tape recording of someone speaking and must echo this speechback word for word while they are listening to thisAttended channel In experiments the attended channel is presented through stereo headphones so that participants hear attended channel through 1 earphoneUnattended channel Presented in another earphone participants are instructed simply to ignore this messageDichotic Listening Overall setup of the eventCherry 1953 In experiment Participants follow 1 messaged and their shadowing performance is generally near perfect they hear little from the unattended channel If we ask them after 1 minute of shadowing to report what unattended channel contained nonwordswordsSimilar results w visual inputs watched TV screen that show team of players in white shirts passing ball back and forth the participants had a signal each timethe ball changed hands Another team wears black shirts also passing back and forth they are supposed to ignore them Some people couldnt see other things bc they were so attention ie player wearing gorilla costume walking through middle of the gameSome Unattended Inputs are DetectedCocktail party effect You are at party engaged in conversation many are taking place in room but somehow able to tune them out you can hear only the single conversation in the room but then you hear a name of close friends of yours and your attention is immediately caught by itHow can we explain both our general insensitivity to the unattended channel and also the cases where unattended channels leak throughPerceiving and the Limits on Cognitive CapacityWe have 2 broad options for how we might think about attention 1 option focuses on what we do with unattended inputFilter Shields us from potential distracters desired informationattended channel is not filtered out and so goes on to receive further processingWe can shut out distracters in this way but this shutting out seems to work on a distracterbydistracter basis In other words we can inhibit our response to this distracter and do same for that distracter and these efforts can be quite successfulHowever the same efforts are of little value if some new distracter comes along we need to develop a new skill aimed specifically at blocking the new intruderFurther evidence indicates that this is only a small part of the storyblocking processing of distracters and promote the processing of desired stimuliInattentional BlindnessIn 1 experiment participants were told they would see largeshapes on computer screen presented for 200 ms then pattern mask If horizontal bar ofwas longer than vertical participants were supposed to press 1 button if vertical was longer that had to press a different button participants werent allowed to look directly at the Fixation Target is the fixatedpointed their eyes at a mark in the center of computer screen th First 3 trials were easy during 4 trial whilewas one screen fixation was replaced by 1 of 3 shapes and then entire configuration was replaced by a pattern maskSTILL GOOD THOUGHSome researchers propose that participants did see target shapes but couldnt rememberwhat they had just seenthey noted that the participants were not expecting any shapes to appear and were not in any way prepared for these shapesparticipants literally failed to see shapes even though they were staring at theminattentional blindness
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