Textbook Notes (363,261)
Canada (158,279)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYB57H3 (369)
George Cree (102)
Chapter 4

chapter 4

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University of Toronto Scarborough
George Cree

CHAPTER 4 ROLES OF KNOWLEDGE IN COGNITION Knowledge is often thought of as constituting particular bodies of facts, techniques, and procedures that cultures develop. Ex knowledge of a guitar KNOWLEDGE is information about the world that is stored in memory, ranging from everyday to the formal. Can also be further defined as info about world that is true, that you have justification for believing, and that is coherent Bulk of your knowledge is mundane knowledge. Knowledge is very important for any mental process!! Without knowledge you would be unable to categorize things!!!! And lose its meaning!! The whole point of categorization is to allow you to draw inferences, to allow you to derive information not explicitly present in a single member of a category but available because of knowledge of the characteristics of the group or groups to which it belongs. So categorization can allow you to draw inferences about a certain object!!! If no knowledge, then no inferences can be made!!! Also, no knowledge means no appropriate action. If you do know or cannot assign any meaning to a situation or an object (when no knowledge present), than you cannot perform appropriate actions accordingly. Without knowledge, you also cannot complete partial perception. Ex if an object is blocking part of your name, you would perceive of it as not ur name, without knowledge. But with knowledge, you would understand that part of ur name is hidden by the object in front of it. SOOOO .. Knowledge affects perception. Knowledge also affects attention, if you lack knowledge, then you would not be able to focus your attention on the proper place. The ability of understanding language requires knowledge, if no knowledge, then cannot understand and understand the meaning behind what the other person is saying. Without knowledge, cannot judge, not perform transitivity (ex if X is louder than Y, and Y is louder than Z, then X is louder than Z). Transitivity is but one example of the many ways in which knowledge enables sophisticated thought. Knowledge underlies virtually every form that THOUGHT takes ex decision making, planning, problem solving etc So knowledge imp for categorization, action, inference, perception, attention, memory, language and thought!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Without knowledge, youd simply by registering images of the scene passively like a camera www.notesolution.comREPRESENTATIONS AND THEIR FORMATS Knowledge relies on representations. A REPRESENTATION is a physical state ( such as marks on a page, magnetic fields in a computer, or neural connections in a brain) that stands for an object, event, or concept. Representations also carry information about what they stand for. MEMORIES AND REPRESENTATIONS The Intentionality Criterion a representation must be constructed intentionally to stand for something else. Your brain stores information automatically, even when you are not trying to fix it in your memory. Some information is stored consciously as well as unconsciously. You have the unconscious goal of storing information about experience, INDEPENDENt of your conscious goals of storing information about experience. The intentionality criterion is met because the brain at an unconscious level has the design feature of storing information about experiences of the world to stand for those experiences. The intention to capture information is built into the brain system, whether or not you consciously direct each memory. The Information- Carrying Criterion a representation must carry information about what it stands for. Ex you carry information of an object and describe the object to someone without it being present in front of you. So ur memory of the object carries information about it. Since it carries information, it can allow you to categorize and make inferences from it THEREFORE, representations lay the groundwork for knowledge!!!! Once the brain intentionally establishes memories that carry information about the world, all sorts of sophisticated cognitive abilities become possible. FOUR POSSIBLE FORMATS FOR REPRESENTATIONS Format refers to the type of its code. Format not only refers to the elements that make up a representation and how these elements are arranged, but also relies on characteristics of the processes that operate on them to extract information. Representation can be 1. modality specific may make use of perceptual or motor systems 2. amodal residing outside of perceptual and motor modalities. MODALITY SPECIFIC REPRESENTATIONS: IMAGES An image has three elements www.notesolution.com
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