Textbook Notes (362,796)
Canada (158,054)
Psychology (9,545)
PSYB57H3 (369)
George Cree (102)
Chapter 5

chapter 5

20 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
George Cree

Chapter 5 Encoding and Retrieval from Long-Term Memory 1. The Nature of Long-Term Memory The ability to remember the people, places, and things encountered in the course of daily life is a fundamental form of cognition that guides behaviour Memory the internal repository of stored information o Relies on a set of processes by which information is encoded, consolidated, and retrieved o Memory is essential to the functioning and even the survival of human and other animals o Without memory, we could never learn from our experience and would operate aimlessly, without plans or goals o Moto skills and language ability would be lost o Even the sense of personal identity we all possesswould be gone Long-term memory information that is acquired in the course of an experience and that persists so that it can be retrieved long after the experience is past o Some forms of long-term memory can be consciously retrieved, so that we can use our remembrance of things past to guide present thought and action William James (1890) described this kind of memory as the knowledge of a former state of mind after it has once dropped from consciousness By contrast, other forms of long-term memory influence our present thinking and behaviours while operating outside awareness In such instances, past experience unconsciously affects the present. 1.1: The Forms of Long Term Memory Theorists believe that there are multiple forms of long-term memory that differ in their basic information processing properties and in the brain structures that support them These various forms of memory are thought to fall into 2 general classes Declarative memory (explicit memory) refers to forms of long-term memory that can ordinarily be consciously recollected and declared to other people, such as memory, for facts. Ideas, and events o Encompasses episodic memory, the memory of events in our own personal past, and semantic memory, our general knowledge about things in the world and their meaning , a distinction proposed by Endel Tulving in 1972 o Episodic memory the conscious knowledge of temporally dated, spatially located, and personally experienced events or episodes. Supports memory for individual life, has a context www.notesolution.com Ex. When collecting details about one of the people you met in the hall- her political view, her food taste you engage in a kind of mental time travel to your earlier meeting, and you were aware that the information you possessed about her was bound to that particular autobiographical experience o Semantic memory knowledge about words and concepts, their properties, and interrelations When you retrieve your semantic memory of, say, the main ingredients of Italian cuisine, that memory is not bound to the specific context in which you acquired that knowledge because you likely accumulated the knowledge across multiple experiences in a variety of contexts Declarative memory tests that assessdeclarative memory are termed explicit memory tests because they require the retrieval of an explicit description or report of knowledge from memory o Is highly flexible, involving the association of multiple pieces of information into a unified memory representation thus, we may have different routes to retrieval of a given memory Both forms of declarative memory, episodic and semantic, depend on the operation of the medial temporal lobes. Nondeclarative memory (implicit memory) refers to non-conscious forms of long-term memory that are expressed as a change in behaviour without any conscious recollection o Tests of non declarative memory are called implicit memory tests they do not require description of the contents of memory, but rather reveal memory implicitly through observed changes in performance, such as the gradual acquisition of a motor skill o Nondeclarative memory in comparison to declarative memory tends to be more restricted in ways that this knowledge can be retrieved o The various forms of nondeclarative memory do not depend on the medial temporal lobe structures that are important for declarative memory. Rather, various forms of nondeclarative memory are implemented in different brain regions 1.2 : The Power of Memory: The Story of H.M. Much of the research describing and classifying types of long term memory has a very human foundation in the experience of a patient known as H.M. o The pattern of catastrophic memory deficits observed in this man initiated a revolution in our understanding of memory, revealing that our ability to encode and retrieve new episodic and semantic memories depends on a particular set of brain structures in the medial and temporal lobesthe hippocampus and surrounding entorhinal, perirhinal, and parahippocampal cortices ^ www.notesolution.com
More Less

Related notes for PSYB57H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.