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Chapter 5

Chapter 5 notes

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Gabriela Ilie

PSYB57- Chapter 5- Memory Structures The Echo Sensory memory for auditory material Moray, Bates and Barnett gave participants a four eared listening task, similar to the dichotic listening task. Strings of random letters were presented in each of the 4 channels. In one condition participants were asked to recall all the letters that were presented (whole report condition) and in the other condition, they were asked to partially report the letters from one of the channels, indicated by a light corresponding to a channel. Like Sperling, they found that participants were able to recall more letters in the partial report condition, suggesting that echo, like icon, stores information only briefly Crowder said that echoic memory has a larger capacity than iconic memory Suffix effect- you are presented with a list of digits or letters auditorily and if there is an auditory recall cue such as a spoken word or specific item, recall of the last few items on the list is hindered The recall cue, called the suffix, functions as an auditory mask because when the suffix is simply a beep or a tone or a visual stimulus, there is usually not much effect. Nor is there any effect if the items on the list are presented visually The more auditory similarity there is between the suffix and the items on the list, the greater the suffix effect Sensory memories are modality specific: visual sensory memory contains visual info, etc Sensory memories capacities appear larger for visual than auditory sensory memory, but the length of time info can be stored is longer in the auditory store Information that can be stored appears relatively unprocessed, meaning that most has to do with physical aspects of the stimuli rather than with meaningful ones Short term memory Free recall experiment- people are presented with a list of words and are just asked to recall all the words. Results show that people recall more words at either the beginning or the end of the list than they do words in the middle. This is known as the serial position effect www.notesolution.com The improved recall of words at the beginning of the list is called the primacy effect ; that at the end of the list is the recency effect Rehearsal or repetition of items helps info enter long term storage If the experimenter reads the list rapidly to prevent rehearsal of items, the primacy effect disappears but the recency effect remains The recency effect d thought to result from participants using either sensory memory or STM. If the experimenter prevents the participant from reporting words right away, by having her first perform an unrelated task, the recency effect (but not the primacy effect) disappears Incoming info. First passes through this rapidly decaying storage system (sensory memory). If attended to, this info next moves into STM. To be held for longer than a min or 2 the info must be transferred to LTM STM lasts typically for a min or 2, if rehearsal is not prevented Short term store- capacity 7 seems to be the max number of independent units we can hold in STM. We call this the capacity of STM You can remember a long string of letters by chunking the info into sets Chunking depends on knowledge; Miller regarded chunking as a fundamental process of memory- a powerful means of increasing the amount of info we can process at any given time Short term store- Coding Coding refers to the way in which info is mentally represented- the form in which info is held Study by Conrad- he presented a list of consonants for later recall. Although the letters were presented visually, participants were likely to make errors that were similar in sound to the original stimuli. For ex, if the letter P was presented, they would recall another letter that sounded like P (like G or C) than to report a letter that looked like P. They were forming a mental representation of the stimuli that involved the acoustic rather than the visual properties www.notesolution.com
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