Textbook Notes (363,137)
Canada (158,217)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYB57H3 (369)
George Cree (102)
Chapter 10

b57 - chapter 10 - LANGUAGE

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University of Toronto Scarborough
George Cree

B57 Chapter 10Language THE ORGANIZATION OF LANGUAGELanguage involves a special type of translation If you want to describe an experience you need to convert your ideas about your experience into sounds that you can utter In turn the listener needs to detect those sounds and convert them into some sort of comprehensionLanguage is highly organized w clear patterns in the way that various ideas are expressed which guide youAs speakerslisteners we need to grasp and rely on these reliably patterns We need to know what ideas are intended by the individual worlds we must be able to decore the syntax etcSteps o Highest level of structure are ideas expressed as sentences coherent sequences of words that express the intended meaning of a speaker o Sentences are composed of phrases that are composed of words o Words are composed of morphemes the smallest language units carrying meaning some morphemes can stand alone ie umpire or talk whereas others get bound ie ed and the plural s o Morphemes are conveyed by sounds called phonemes smallest unit of sound that can serve to distinguish words in language Some are easily represented by letters in the alphabet while others are not thus why we see some weird symbols in their levelLanguage can also be organized by combining or recombining the units to produce novel utterancesassembling the phonemes into brand new morphemes or assembling words into brandnew phrases hw not all combinations are possible some sound weird awkward and strange PHONOLOGY The Production of SpeechWhen breathing air flows out of the lungs through the larynx and up through the nosemouth Noises are produced if this airflow is interrupted or alteredExample in the larynx there are 2 flaps of muscular tissue called vocal folds or vocal cords Voicing occurs when they are rapidly opened or closed producing a buzzing sort of vibration producing soundYou can also produce sound by narrowing the passageway within the mouth itself Example hiss like a snake and notice your tongues position depending where and how you place your tongue you may get a different sound Produce shh sound with tongue and mouth positioned in another way and you create a different soundThese various kinds of speech production provide a basis for categorizing speech sounds o We can distinguish sounds according to how the airflow is obstructed referred to as manner of production such as airflow can be stopped for a moment when pronouncing t or b or air can continue to flow when pronouncing f or v o We can distinguish between sounds that are voicedproduced w the vocal cords vibratingand those that are not ie sounds v z and n are voiced whereas f s t k are unvoiced 1
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