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Chapter 11

Ch. 11 Visual Knowledge.docx

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George Cree

Ch. 11: Visual Knowledge Chapter 11: Visual Knowledge Visual Imagery  Words can elicit mental pictures of objects (incl. people) o Mental pictures are not real pictures  Introspection about images o Francis Galton  Ask people to introspect on their mental image and collected data of self-reports  Some reported seeing actual scenes with all its features while others reported seeing nothing of that sort  Individual differences o Self-report -- not the best strategy; it is open to subject interpretation  Chronometric studies of imagery o Ask people to do something with their images (to read information off of them or to manipulate them in some way) o Examine how accurate and how fast people are in their responses, and with appropriate comparisons we can use these measurements as a basis for testing hypotheses about the nature of imagery. o Can be used to identify what sorts of information is prominent and what is not o the pattern of what information is included, as well as what information is prominent, depends on the mode of presentation  Description  Think about the distinctive features of an object being described (something that is strongly associated with the object)  Faster processing with verbal tasks  Depiction  size and position will determine what is prominent  Likely mode for visual images  Thus, as the mode of representation changes, so does the pattern of information availability  Show image of cat -- depiction (size and position questions answered faster)  Ask to think about cats -- description (distinctive feature questions answered faster)  We can switch the way we think o Image-scanning procedure  Ask participants to move across different locations in a mental map  participants scan across their images at a constant rate (double distance --> double the time) o Zooming  We can zoom in/out of our pictures  Elephant + Mouse --> take longer to see the whiskers on the mouse  Mouse + paperclip --> take short time to see whiskers  Thus, we have visual representation in our minds o Therefore, images represent a scene in a fashion that preserves all of the distance relationships within that scene (ie. Images are depictions rather than descriptions) Mental Rotations o Compare two different geometric shapes by mentally rotating them to match each other o The further one has to imagine a form rotating, the longer the evaluation takes o No problems in rotation of depth o Thus, mental representations are not like pictures but like sculptures  Avoiding concerns about demand character o Demand character  cues that participants might pick up from experimenters on how they “should” behave in the experiment  Participants think to themselves, "we should pretend as if this is happening in real life and act accordingly" --> support the hypothesis of the experimenter  can be problematic for interpretation of results o Avoidance --> blinded studies  The results remain the same --> thus, mental pictures are laid out spatially  Interactions between imagery and perception o forming a visual image interferes with seeing, and forming an auditory image interferes with hearing o Thus, there is an overlap of imaging and perceiving (some mental structures or processes are used by both activities) o Similarly, visual imagination --> lead to priming of later perception  Imagine "H" --> show faint "H" on screen --> facilitate quicker perception of "H" o Similar structures required for imagery as for vision  Occipital Lobe active in both cases  Areas V1 and V2 active for low-level features of visual input and also active while imagining detailed images  MT/MST active during motion recognition in both vision and during imagination of moving objects  FFA (face area) active when seeing faces and while imagining faces  Lesions:  Loss of color recognition = loss of color imagination  Loss of fine detail recognition = loss of imagining pictures with fine details  Neglect  Only report right side of the visual stream (not because of physical incapabilities)  Also, imagine only right side of mental image  Sensory effects in Imagery o imagery and perception function in similar ways = functional equivalence o Visual acuity is preserved in imagery as it works in vision  Spatial Images and Visual Images o Blind people encode the imagery differently (spatial imagery) however the same pattern between imagery and perception is seen  Thus, spatial imagery is preserved and acts like spatial perception o Spatial imagery - represent spatial layout in terms of movements or body feelings o Visual imagery - represent spatial layout in terms of how things look o People who have lost the ability to perceive motion, have also lost the ability to imagine motion  But there are exceptions to this as well  People may good with imagery but lose perception (or vice-versa)  Reason:  Vision shares structure with visual imagery --> lesion = both lost  Spatial perception does not share structures with spatial imagery --> lesion = either one is lost  Individual differences o What causes a person to use one imagery over the other?  Instructions  Asked about color --> visual imagery o Some people are good with visual imagery while others are good with spatial imagery o There is no advantage in being better with either visual imagery or spatial imagery on spatial task o But there is an advantage in being better with visual imagery than spatial imagery on visual tasks o Visual imagers are
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