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Canada (161,659)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYB57H3 (366)
George Cree (102)
Chapter 8

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George Cree

Chapter 8 Associative Theories of LongTerm MemoryMemory search is aided by connections bw material to be learned and the things one already knowsWhat are these connections and what does the travellingThe Network NotionMemory connections provide more than retrieval pathsconnection are our memoriesMemory is represented by a memory connectionsa connection bw some memory content representing things and some memory content representing the sound pattern of How Might the Network WorkEssence of memory network is straightforwardNeed some means of representing individual ideasnodes wI the network just like the knots wI a fishermans net Latinknot nodus are tied to each other via connections called associationassociative links like nodescities on map associationhighways that link the citiesNot all association are of equal lengthHow do these memory connections get established Ideas become linked only if during the learning episode the learner pays attention to the items to be rememberedsome active intellectual engagements is needed to create the connections the nature ofthis engagement is crucialSpreading ActivationA node becomes activated when it has receive a strong enough input signal like energy or fuel and the associative links are like activation carriersNodes receive activation form their neighbours and as more and more activation arrives at a particular node the activation levelThe activation level will reach the nodes response thresholdthe node fires as several effectsActivation levels below the response threshold socalled subthreshold activation have an important role to play Activation is assumed to accumulate so that 2 subthreshold inputs may add togethersummate and bring the node to thresholdIf a node has been partially activated recently it is already warmed up so that even as weak input will be sufficient to bring the node to thresholdAlmost like neuronsThey key idea is activation travels from node to node via the associative links as each node becomes activated and fires it serves as a source for further activation spreading onward through the networkSpreading activation allows us to deal w a key issueIf you start at 1 node how do you decide where to go from there You do not choose at all activation spreads out form its starting point in all direction simultaneously flowing through whatever connections are in placeEvidence Favouring the Network ApproachThis sketch leaves a great deal unspecified but that is deliberate associative nets can be implemented in various waysHintsWhy do hints help us to rememberie what is the capital of South Dakota And given the hint Is is perhaps a mans nameSouth Dakota will activate the nodes in memory that represent your knowledge about this state Activation will spread outward from these nodes to the capital city
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