Textbook Notes (363,079)
Canada (158,178)
Psychology (9,565)
PSYB57H3 (369)
George Cree (102)
Chapter 12

Chapter 12.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
George Cree

Chapter 12 Judgment Drawing Conclusions from EvidenceInduction Process to go beyond available informationdrawing inferences about a pattern based on few examplesInductive conclusions are never guaranteed to be true but if done properly conclusion are likely to be trueDescriptive account of human inductiontelling us how the process ordinarily proceedNormative account of human inductiontelling us how things ought to goJudgment Heuristics ie Process of educationconnection and backandforth bw teacher and student capacity to learn depends on the person who has the experience and the persons memoryWe draw conclusions based on experiences gathered over long timeAttribute SubstitutionAttribute substitution Form of strategy to try and evaluate some point but dont have easy access to target information rely on other aspect of experience thats more accessible ie doing well Organic Chemistry How well have my friends done who got good grades or did poorlyseeking information about frequenciesmany not be easily accessible for you so you have trouble estimating relevant frequenciesAvailability Heuristic Relying on availabilityease w which things come to mindas a substitute for frequency ie Judging f David is lying or not Try to remember things about David and liars and see if David fits in category liar BUT might be easier to rely on attribute substitutionRepresentativeness Heuristics Substitution using resemblance in place of information about category membership ie does David resemble your notion of typical liarThe Availability HeuristicsHeuristics Reasonably efficient strategies that usually lead us to the right answerbut can give us errorsAvailability and representativeness heuristicsattribute being used is easy to assess being relied on is correlated w target dimension to serve as proxy for targetieAre there more words in the dictionary beginning w R ie rose rabbit rock or more words w R in 3rd positions ie tarp bare throw More people say there are more beginning w RWRONG People get this wrong bc of availabilitytrying to search for word starting w RMANY vs words w R in 3rd positionLESThe Wide Range of Availability EffectsPeople use strategies like availability in a wide range of other cases ie people regularly overestimate frequency of evens that are quite rareplays role in people buying lottery tickets physicians overestimate likelihood of rare disease and fail to pursue more appropriate diagnosesWhy Unusual events more likely to catch your attention so they will be wellrecorded in memorymake these events more easily available to you ie participants asked to recall number of examples in their lives where they acted in asserted fashionrecalled 6 whilerecalled 12 Then all were asked some more general questions including how assertive they thought they were 6 exampleseasier time Those examples came easily to mind therefore there must be a large number of examples I must be can assertive person
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