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PSYB57H3 (369)
George Cree (102)
Chapter 9

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University of Toronto Scarborough
George Cree

Chapter 9Concepts and Generic KnowledgeDefinitions What Do We Know When We Know What a Dog IsIf someone send us to pet shop to buy dogsure to succeed and other facts of dogsHow do know this knowledge 1 Something w dictionary definition A dog is a creature that 1 is mammalian 2 has four legs 3 barksd wags its tailIf we were asked what dogs cats and horses have in common we could scan our definition of each one looking for common elementsDifficulty w proposal was w Ludwig Wittgenstein who noted that philosophers have been trying to define terms like virtue and knowledgehowever these terms were still accepts without accepted full definitionsHow about the word game What is a game ie hideandseek what makes hideandseek a game It a is an activity most often practiced by children b engaged for fun c has certain rules d involves multiple people e is somewhat competitive g played during periods of leisureAll these are plausible attributes so we define game this wayBut are they really part of the definition of game How about Olympic Games They arent children and arent funWhat about card games Family ResemblanceNeed a way to identify concepts tat highlights what the various members of category have in common while allowing exceptions on rulesWe would not say A dog is a creature that has fur and 4 legs and barks ie hair Chihuahua threelegged dogWittengensteins proposalmembers of category have a family resemblanceWittengenstein proposed that 1000s of categories we can think about work in the same fashionno features that are shared by all or all games just as there are no features shared by everyone in your familyPrototypes and Typicality EffectsOne way to think about definitions are they set boundaries for category if a test case has certain attributes then it is inside the category If the test doesnt have attributesoutside categoryPrototype theory Best way to identify as category to characterize a concept specify center of category to characterize a concept is to specify the center of categoryFuzzy Boundaries and Graded MembershipWhat it means to know a concept is simply to have some mental representation of concepts prototype Categorize objects by comparing them to prototypes stored in memorySince category is characterized by its center the prototype and not by its boundaries theres no way we can say whether something is inside or outside the categoryFuzzy boundary NO clear specification of category membership and nonmembershipNot all category members are equal1 Classical view Object was either in category of not 2 Prototype view Fuzzy boundaries categorization is a matter of more or less Objects closer to the prototype are in effect better members of the category than objects farther form the prototypePrototypes have graded membership with some dogs being doggier than others etcTesting the Prototype NotionSentence Verification Task Participants are presented w sentences their job is to indicate whether each sentence is true or false how quickly they can do this speed depends on several factors Reponses spend depends on the number of steps the participants must traverse to confirm sentences ie A penguin is a bird than A robin is a bird
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