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Chapter 8

Chapter 8 notes

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Gabriela Ilie

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PSYB57- Chapter 8- Visual Imagery and spatial cognition • Visual images mental pictures • Visual images can’t be seen, counted, or controlled by other people; behaviourists reject the idea of visual images because they cannot be studied • People using imagery are better at recalling info Mnemonics and memory codes • Mnemonics are strategies that people use to retain and recall info • Method of loci requires the learner to imagine a series of places or locations that have some order to them. Ex. remembering your grocery list by imagining each item in a different spot in your home • Another method to help remember things is called the technique of interacting images. Recall of nouns in a study improved when they were asked to form images of words; those in a paired associate task, who were asked to remember pairs of words recalled them better when they formed images of the pair • Bower showed that in order for participants to improve their recall for paired words, they should form images that interact with each other. Ex. to remember goat-pipe, recall is better if your form an image of a goat smoking a pipe rather than simply imagining a goat next to a pipe • Another mnemonic technique is called the pegword method. Like the method of loci, it involves picturing the items with another set of ordered cues. In this case, the cues are not locations but rather nouns that come from a memorized rhyming list: ex. one= bun, two= shoe, etc. • This method calls for the participant to picture the first item interacting with a bun, the second item interacting with a shoe, etc; this method works for only 10 items or fewer • Not all mnemonic techniques have to do with imagery; you can record the material to be recalled, adding extra words or sentences to mediate or go between your memory and the material. Ex. taking the first letter of each word you have to remember and forming a sentence or another word with it. • The words and sentences are mediators- they are internal codes that connect the items to be remembered and our responses www.notesolution.com • Arranging materials into categories helps organize materials and increases chances of recall The dual coding hypothesis • Created by Allan Paivio; LTM contains 2 distinct coding systems for representing info to be stored. One is verbal, containing info about linguistics, item’s abstract. The other involves imagery: mental pictures that represent what the item looks like • His idea is that pictures and words give rise to verbal labels and visual images; they have 2 internal codes or mental representations • Abstract words have only 1 kind of code or representation: verbal label • In a study, participants were asked to remember one of 4 lists of noun pairs: concrete pairs (CC; ex. table-book), abstract nouns (AA; beauty-truth), one concrete, one abstract (CA; chair-justice) and the first noun being abstract and the second being concrete (AC; freedom- dress) • Participants were able to remember the list in this order with the first being the best: CC, CA, AC, and AA • Paivio explained that participants would form visual images of noun pairs whenever possible and the formation was the easiest for concrete nouns • He assumed that visual imagery, unlike verbal labelling, increases as function of concreteness: the more concrete the noun, the richer the image and the more elaborated the internal code • With items are coded by both images and words, the chances of remembering those items increases. If the verbal label is forgotten, the individual can use the mental imagery to retrieve the info • Items that are coded only by verbal label are at a disadvantage because if the verbal label is forgotten, the individual has less chances of remembering • Paivio also believed that the first noun in the pair, called the stimulus noun, serves as a conceptual peg on which the second noun (response) is hooked. Thus, the imaginability of the first noun is important in improving the remembering the second noun. The relational organizational hypothesis • Bower proposed this as an alternative to the previous hypothesis www.notesolution.com • He believed that imagery improved memory not because the images are richer than verbal labels but because imagery produces more associations between the items to be recalled • Forming an image involves the person to create a number of links between the info to be remembered and other info • Imagery works by facilitating the creation of a greater number of hooks that link the 2 to be remembered pieces of info • In his study, participants were divided into 3 groups, each given diff. instructions for a paired associates learning task. One group was told to rehearse aloud; second group told to construct 2 images that did not interact; third group told to construct an interactive scene of the 2 words in the pair • Results showed that they recognized about 85% of the previously seen words. Those who rehearsed aloud (overt rote repetition) recalled 30% of the pairs; noninteractive imagery- 27% and interactive imagery- 53% • According to these results, it’s not imagery itself that helps memory but rather the way in which imagery is used • Interacting images create or suggest more links between the target info and other info, making the target info easy to retrieve Empirical investigations of imagery • Moyer asked participants which animal was bigger (he named 2 animals). He found that people were faster to respond when the 2 animals differed greatly; this is called the symbolic distance effect Mental rotation of images • Shepard and Metzler’s mental rotation study: showed participants line drawings of 3-D objects. on each trial, they would see 2 drawings. In some cases, the 2 drawings depicted the same object but with one of them rotated. In other cases, the drawings were mirror images of each other, so the objects were similar but not identical. The mirror images were also sometimes rotated. • They found that the amount of time it took participants to decide if the 2 drawings depicted the same object or mirror image reversal was proportional to the angle of rotation between the drawings www.notesolution.com • The results showed that they performed the task by mental rotation of one drawing • Other studies by Cooper and Shepard show that participants also mentally rotated more recognizable stimuli, such as letters or drawings of hands • In their study, participants were shown a drawing of the letter to be used on a trial, followed by a cue showing the orientation to which the test stimulus would be rotated, before the test stimulus actually appeared. If the cue was presented early enough, then the performances were the same for all angles of rotation • When people view 3-D objects or line drawings of them, as long as the basic geometric components of the object remain visible people can recognize the object without performing mental rotation Scanning images • Imaginal scanning involves forming a visual image and then scanning it, moving from one location to another in their image; the time people take to scan reveals something about the ways images represent spatial properties such as location and distance • In a study, Kosslyn had participants study drawings of objects that were either elongated vertically or horizontally. After the initial learning phase, participants were told to form an image of one of the drawings and then to look for a particular part. Some participants were told to focus first on one part of the image and then to scan, looking for the second part. Results showed that the longer the distance from the designated end to the location of the part, the longer it took people to say whether the part they were looking for was in the drawing. • Lea argued that the reaction times increased not because of increased distance in the image bur b ecasue of the number of items in the image that had to be scanned www.notesolution.com • In Kosslyn et.al study, the reaction times to scan b/w objects were correlated with the distance b/w objects; participants took longer to scan b/w 2 distant objects than they did to scan b/w nearby ones. • Kosslyn’s work suggests that people’s scanning of their visual images is in some ways similar to their scanning of actual pictures: the greater the distance b/w 2 parts, the longer it takes to scan b/w them Tverskey argued that people’s maps are distorted because people use diff heuristics or rules
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