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PSYB57H3 (369)
Chapter 10&11

Chapters 10 & 11, Guest lecture

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Gabriela Ilie

PSYB57 Final Notes Universal standards of thought Clarity Could you elaborate further on that point? Could you express that point in another way? Could you give me an illustration? Could you give me an example? Its the gateway standard: if a statement is unclear, we cannot determine whether it is accurate or relevan Accuracy Is that really true? How could we check that? Clear but not accurate, as in Most dogs are over 300 pounds in weight. Precision Could you give more details? Could you be more specific? A statement can be both clear and accurate, but not precise, as in Jack is overweight. We dont know how overweight Jack is, one pound or 500 pounds Relevanc How is that connected to the question? How does that bear on the issue? e A statement can be clear, accurate, and precise, but not relevant to the question at issue. Often, the effort that the student puts in does not measure the quality of student learning When this is so, effort is irrelevant to their appropriate grade Depth How does your answer address the complexities in the question? How are you taking into account the problems in the question? Is that dealing w the most significant factors? No depth = superficial Just say No! which is often used to discourage children and teens from using drugs, is [all of the above] Nevertheless, it lacks depth because it treats an extremely complex issue, the pervasive problem of drug use among young people, superficially It fails to deal with the complexities of the issue Breadth Do we need to consider another point of view? Is there another way to look at this question? What would this look like from a conservative standpoint? What would this look like from? As in an argument from either the conservative or liberal standpoint which gets deeply into an issue, but only recognizes the insights of one side of the question Logic Does this really make sense?Does that follow from what you said? How does that follow? But before you implied this, and now you are saying that; how can both be true? When the combination of thoughts are mutually supporting and make sense in combination, the thinking is logical. Fairness Do I have a vested interest in this issue? Am I sympathetically representing the viewpoints of others? Human thinking is often biased in the direction of the thinker We must actively work to make sure we are applying the intellectual standard of fairness to our thinking Chapter 10 Thinking, Problem Solving and Reasoning What is thinking? Going beyond the information given (Bruner, 1957) Complex and high-level skill that fills up gaps in the evidence (Bartlett, 1958) Process of searching through a problem space (Newell & Simon, 1972) What we do when we are in doubt about how to act, what to believe, or what to desire (Baron, 1994) Introspection = detailed, concurrent, nonjudgmental observation of the contents of your consciousness as you work on a problem www.notesolution.com Provides the basis for hypotheses and tests using more objective measures Key to proper use of this technique: to avoid doing more than is asked for Dont explain justify what youre thinking about, just report it 2 types of thinking Focused thinking = goal based, problem solving Unfocused thinking = daydreaming, unintentional, creative thinking Types of problems Well-defined = have beginning and end, rule or guidelines, clear goal Ill-defined = dont have goals, starting info, or steps spelled out Problem solving techniques Generate & Generate a number of solutions, then test the solutions test Useful if there is a limited number of possibilities Problematic if too many possibilities o No guidance over generation o Cant keep track of possibilities tested Means-ends Problem space (Newell & Simon, 1972) o Initial state: conditions at beginning of problem o Goals state: condition at the end of problem o Intermediate states: the various conditions that exist along pathways between the initial and the goal state o Operators: permissible moves Goal: reduce the difference between initial state and goal state Involves generating a goal and then sub-goals Comparing goal with subgoals and determining the best one Any sequence of moves beginning at the initial state and ending at the final goal state Crypt arithmetic problems = problems in which letters stand for digits Not the most optimal way to reach a soln, becuz sometimes the optimal way involves taking a temp step backward and further from the goal Working Involves creating sub-goals and reducing differences between the current state backwards and the goal state (like means-ends analysis) But sub-goals are created working backwards from the goal state Most effective when the backward path is unique, making the process more efficient than working forward Backtracking Problem solving often involves making working assumptions In order to correct mistakes in problem solving, need to: o remember your assumptions o assess which assumptions failed o correct the assumptions Reasoning by Find comparisons between two situations and apply the solution from one analogy situation to the other Dunbar: scientists would use 3-15 analogies in a single one-hour lab meeting To understand unexpected experimental findings, fix experimental problems, formulate new hypotheses Dunbar & Blanchette: politicians and journalists used sources from very distant domains other than politics ~75% of the time Politicians were basing their analogies not on superficial features but rather on structural similarities, showing that ppl effectively use analogy on a daily basis Gick & Presented participants with the tumor problem Holyoak (1980) But before each person read the story of the General www.notesolution.com
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