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Canada (158,215)
Psychology (9,571)
PSYB57H3 (369)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9 notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Gabriela Ilie

PSYB57- Chapter 9- Language Some language are bottom up and some are driven by listeners expectations; some occurs automatically and some is performed intentionally Although language is often used as a communication system, there are other communication systems that do not form true language A natural language has 2 necessary characteristics: iregular (governed by rules called grammar) and it iproductive , meaning that infinite combinations of things can be expressed in it Other characteristics includarbitrariness (lack of necessary resemblance bw a word and what it refers to) adiscreteness (the system can be divided into recognizable parts) All human languages are communication systems but not all communication systems have the prerequisites to be classified as natural languages The structure of language Sounds= phonemes ; the study of ways in which phonemes can be combined in any language is the study of phonology Putting the sounds in a coherent way and identifying the meaningful units of language is known as morphology Morphemes smallest meaningful units of language are words Syntax - structure of a sentence; semantics- meaning of a sentence Pragmatics -studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning In psycholinguistics, grammar refers to ways of speaking that form intelligible phrases recognizable as ex of language that a native speaker of the language might produce our knowledge of rules is implicit, not explicit linguistic competence - underlying linguistic knowledge that lets people produce and comprehend their language; not fully evident in actual use or performance of language lapses of memory, nervousness or tiredness, environmental changes, shifts in interest or random error can all interfere with our use of language linguistic performance - reflects linguistic competence under completely ideal conditions; such conditions are never achieved in real life Phonology phonetics - study of speech sounds and how they are produced;phonology - study of systematic ways in which speech sounds are combined and altered in language English has 40 phonetic segments Vowels work wo obstructing airflow; consonants are phonemes made by opening and closing part of mouth Consonants differ in place of articulation (where airflow obstruction occurs), manner of articulation (mechanics of how airflow is obstructed); voicing (z is voiced and s is unvoiced) Syntax Arrangement of words within sentences or structure of sentences www.notesolution.com
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