Textbook Notes (363,556)
Canada (158,423)
Psychology (9,578)
PSYB57H3 (369)
Chapter 4

chapter 4

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Gabriela Ilie

Chapter 4 ATTENTION SELECTIVE ATTENTION We usually focus our attention on one or a few tasks or events rather than on many. Shut out other competing tasks Dichotic listening task The shadowing task is difficult and requires a great deal on mental resources, thus fewer resources are available to process info from the nonshadowed, unattended msg. could report whether the unattended msg contains speech or noise, and if the voice is of a man or a woman. notice the played backward speech. couldnt recall the content of the unattended msg or the language in which it was spoken. Filter Theory Broadbent There are limits on how much info a person can attend to at any given time. The filter is based on some physical aspect of the attended msg: the location of its source or its typical pitch loudness. The filter selects info for later processing, early before the meaning of the msg is identified. Explains why so little of the meaning of the unattended msg can be recalled. The meaning from an unattended msg is simply not processed. It should be impossible to recall any of the meaning of an unattended msg www.notesolution.comwhat is limited is the amount of info we can process at any given time. E.g. two msgs that contain little info or that present info slowly, can be processed simultaneously. In contrast, msgs that present a great deal of info quickly overcome the filter. The filter thus protects us from info overload by shutting out msgs. All unattended msgs will be filtered outnot processed for recognition of meaning. Problems w Filter Theory Cocktail party effect (Moray) Shadowing performance is disrupted when ones own name is embedded in either the attended or unattended msg. Only important material can penetrate the filter set up to block unattended msgs. Treisman Played participants two distinct msgs, each presented to a different ear, and asked the participants to shadow one of them. At a certain point, the content of the first msg and the second msg was switched. Many participants repeated one or two words from the unattended ear. Participants must be basing their selection of which msg to attend to at least in part on the meaning of the msg. Wood and Cowan Dichotic listening task--switch the speech in the unattended channel to backward speech for 30 seconds(half would notice), two groups differed only in how long the normal speech was presented after the backward speech. ppl who noticed the backward speech in the unattended msg showed a disruption in their shadowing of the attended msg, and error rates www.notesolution.com
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