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PSYB57H3 (366)

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Gabriela Ilie

Chapter 5 MEMEORY STRUCTURES Encoding: acquires info, occurs when info is first translated into a form that other cognitive processes can use. Its held in storage in one from or another for later retrieval. Retrieval: the calling to mind of previously stored info Forgetting: when we cannot retrieve info Clive Wearings example Amnesia, spared memory abilities TYPES OF MEMORY Plato Memory is a wax tablet on which impressions are made. Modal model of memory (1960s and 1970s) Info is received, processed, and stored differently for each kind of memory, according to the length of time info is stored. Sensory memory: unattended info Short-term memory (STM): attended info, 20 or 30 sec Long-term memory (LTM) SENSORY MEMORY Initial brief storage of sensory info Separate sensory memories exist for each sensory modality: Visual (icon)auditory (echo)olfactorygustatory tactile sensory memory The Icon www.notesolution.com The after-image of the lightning, or your name, is a mental experience believed to persist in sensory memory. Experiment (George Sperling): Recall displayed letters that were presented for only 50 milliseconds. Expanding the display time didnt improve performance. Even as Ps sere recalling, the info was fading from wherever it was being stored. Info lasts only briefly in visual memory system (the icon). Sperling: Partial-report technique Visual store could hold abt 9 items, but held only briefly, and reduced when the tone cue was delayed. Call this brief visual memorythe icon Masking: the icon can be erased by other stimuli presented immediately after the icon. Ps could be cued to give partial reports in many ways: color, brightness etc. Info available in the icon is only visualnot auditory or related to type of stimulus. The Echo Four-eared listening task Condition 1: Ps were asked to report all letters they had heard Condition 2: Four lights cued the Ps to report only letters from one particular channel. Ps giving partial reports could report proportionately more letters. The echo stores info only briefly. Echoic memory has a larger capacity than iconic memory www.notesolution.com
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