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PSYB64H3 (201)
Chapter 2

PSYB64 Chapter 2 Terms

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB64H3
Professor
Janelle Leboutillier
Semester
Fall

Description
PSYB64 Physiological Psychology Chapter 2 Vocabulary Terms Rostral/anterior: a directional term meaning toward the head of a four-legged animal. Caudal/posterior: a directional term meaning toward the tail of a four-legged animal. Inferior/ventral: a directional term meaning toward the belly of a four-legged animal. Superior/dorsal: a directional term meaning toward the back of a four-legged animal. Neuraxis: an imaginary line that runs the length of the spinal cord to the front of the brain. Midline: an imaginary line dividing the body into two equal halves. Ipsilateral: a directional term referring to structures on the same side of the midline. Contralateral: a directional term referring to structures on opposite sides of the midline. Medial: a directional term meaning toward the midline. Lateral: a direction term meaning away from the midline. Proximal: a directional term that means closer to center; usually applied to limbs; opposite of distal. Distal: a directional term meaning farther away from another structure, usually in reference to limbs. Coronal section: an anatomical section dividing the brain front to back, parallel to the face. Also known as the frontal section. Sagittal section: an anatomical section that is parallel to the midline. Midsagittal section: a sagittal section that divides the brain into two approximately equal halves. Horizontal/axial section: an anatomical section that divides the brain from top to bottom. Meninges: the layers of membranes that cover the central nervous system and the peripheral nerves. Dura mater: the outmost of the three layers of meninges, found in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Arachnoid layer: the middle layer of the meninges covering the central nervous system. Pia mater: the innermost of the layers of the meninges, found in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Subarachnoid space: a space filled with cerebrospinal fluid that lies between the arachnoid and pia mater layers of the meninges in the central nervous system. Meningitis: an infection of the meninges. Cerebrospinal fluid: the special plasma like fluid circulating within the ventricles of the brain, the central canal of the spinal cord, and the subarachnoid space. Ventricle: one of four hollow spaces within the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid. Choroid plexus: the lining of the ventricles, which secretes the cerebrospinal fluid. Central canal: the small midline channel in the spinal cord that contains cerebrospinal fluid. Carotid artery: one of the two major blood vessels that travel up the sides of the neck to supply the brain. Vertebral artery: one of the important blood vessels that enter the brain from the back of the skull. Central nervous system: the brain and the spinal cord. Peripheral nervous system: the nerves exiting the brain and spinal cord that serve sensory and motor functions for the rest of the body. Spinal cord: a long cylinder of nervous tissue extending from the medulla to the first lumbar vertebra Vertebral column: the bones of the spinal column that protect and enclose the spinal cord. Cervical nerve: one of the first eight spinal nerves that serve the area of the head, neck, and arms. Thoracic nerve: one of twelve pairs of spinal nerves that serve the torso. Lumbar nerve: one of the five spinal nerves serving the lower back and legs. Sacral nerve: one of the five spinal nerves that serve the back of the legs and the genitals. Coccygeal nerve: the most caudal of the spinal nerves. White matter: an area of neural tissue primarily made up of myelinated axons. Gray matter: an area of neural tissue primarily made up of cell bodies. Dorsal horns: gray matter in the spinal cord that contains sensory neurons. Ventral horns: gray matter in the spinal cord that contains motor neurons. Reflex: an involuntary action or response. Patellar reflex: the knee-jerk reflex; a spinal reflex in which tapping below the knee produces a reflexive contraction of the quadriceps muscle of the thigh, causing the foot to kick. Withdrawal reflex: a spinal reflex that pulls a body apart away from a source of pain. Hindbrain: the most caudal division of the brain, including the medulla, pons, and cerebellum. Midbrain: the division of the brain lying between the hindbrain and forebrain. Forebrain: the division of the brain containing the diencephalon and the telencephalon. Brainstem: the lower two thirds of the brain, including the hindbrain and midbrain. Mylencephalon/medulla: the most caudal part of the hindbrain. Metencephalon: the division of the hindbrain containing the pons and cerebellum. Nuclei: collections of cell bodies that share a function. Reticular formation: a collection of brainstem nuclei, located near the midline from the rostral medulla up into the midbrain, that regulate sleep and arousal. Pons: a structure located in the metencephalon between the medulla and midbrain; part of the brainstem located in the hindbrain. Cerebellum: a structure located in the metencephalon that participates in balance, muscle tone, muscle coordination, some types of learning, and possibly higher cognitive functions in humans. Cochlear nucleus: a nucleus found in the pons that receives information about sound from the inner ear. Vestibular nucleus: a group of cell bodies in the pons that receive input about the location and movement of the head from sensory structures in the inner ear. Raphe nuclei: nuclei located in the pons that participate in the regulation of sleep and arousal. Locus coeruleus: a structure in the pons that participates in arousal. Mesencephalon: another term for midbrain, the division of the brain lying between the hindbrain and forebrain. Tectum: the ‘roof’, or dorsal half, of the midbrain. Tegmentum: the ‘covering’, or ventral half of the midbrain. Cerebral aqueduct: the small channel running along the midline of the midbrain that connects the third and fourth ventricles. Periaqueductal gray: gray matter surrounding the cerebral aqueduct of the midbrain that is believed to play a role in the sensation of pain. Red nucleus: a structure located within the reticular formation that communicates motor information between the spinal cord and the cerebellum. Substantia nigra: midbrain nuclei that communicate with the basal ganglia of the forebrain. Superior colliculi: a pair of bumps on the dorsal surface of the midbrain that coordinate visually guided movements and visual reflexes. Inferior colliculi: a pair of bumps on the dorsal surface of the midbrain that process auditory information. Diencephalon: a division of the forebrain made up of the hypothalamus and the thalamus. Telencephalon: the division of the brain comprising the cerebral hemispheres. Cerebral hemisphere: one of the two large, globular structures that make up the telencephalon of the forebrain. Thalamus: a structure in the diencephalon that processes sensory information, contributes to states of arousal, and participates in learning and memory. Hypothalamus: a structure found in the diencephalon that participates in the regulation of hunger, thirst, sexual behavior, and aggression; part of the limbic system. Pituitary gland: a gland located just above the roof of the mouth that is connected to the hypothalamus and serves as a major source of hormones. Basal ganglia: a collection of nuclei within the cerebral hemispheres that participate in the control of movement. Caudate nucleus: one of the major nuclei that make up th
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