PSYB64 Physiological Psychology
Chapter 5 Vocabulary Terms
Anencephaly: A neural tube defect in which the rostral neural tube does not develop normally,
resulting in incomplete formation of the brain and skull.
Spina bifida: A neural tube defect in which the caudal part of the tube does not close properly.
Down syndrome: An abnormal genetic condition resulting from a genotype with three copies of
chromosome 21, responsible for moderate mental retardation and a characteristic physical appearance.
Fragile-X syndrome: A heritable genetic disorder that produces cognitive and physical abnormalities.
Phenylketonuria (PKU): A heritable condition in which the individual does not produce enzymes
necessary for the breakdown of phenylalanine; left untreated, the condition produces mental
Fetal alcohol syndrome: A set of physical and cognitive characteristics that result from maternal use of
alcohol during pregnancy.