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PSYB64H3 (201)
Chapter 9

PSYB64 Chapter 9 Terms

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Janelle Leboutillier

PSYB64 Physiological Psychology Chapter 9 Vocabulary Terms homeostasis: A physiological state of equilibrium or balance. set point: A value that is defended by regulatory systems, such as core temperature or a particular body weight. motivation: The process of activating and directing behavior. endotherm: An animal that can use internal methods, such as perspiration or shivering, to maintain body temperature. ectotherm: An animal that relies on external methods, such as moving into the sun or shade, for maintaining body temperature. fever: A carefully controlled increase in the body’s thermal set point that is often helpful in ridding the body of disease-causing organisms. pyrogen: A chemical produced by bacteria or viruses that contributes to the production of a fever hyperthermia (heat stroke): A life-threatening condition in which core body temperature increases beyond normal limits in an uncontrolled manner. hypothermia: A potentially fatal core body temperature below 31 degrees C/87.8 degrees F. preoptic area (POA): A part of the hypothalamus involved in a number of regulatory functions. solute: A chemical dissolved in solution. solution: A fluid containing solutes. electrolyte: A substance that has broken up into ions in solution. interstitial fluid: A type of extracellular fluid surrounding the body’s cells. isotonic: Having the same concentration of solutes as a reference solution. osmosis: The movement of water to equalize concentration on two sides of a membrane. hypotonic: Having a relatively lower concentration of solutes than a reference solution. hypertonic: Having a relatively higher concentration of solutes than a reference solution. kidney: One of a pair of structures located in the lower back responsible for maintaining fluid balance and for producing urine. osmotic thirst: Thirst produced by cellular dehydration. hypovolemic thirs:t Thirst that results from a decrease in the volume of the extracellular fluid. diabetes mellitus: A disease characterized by insulin deficiency, resulting in hunger, excess sugar in blood and urine, and extreme thirst. osmoreceptors: A receptor that detects cellular dehydration. organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT): An area located around the third ventricle in the brain that detects cellular dehydration. baroreceptor: A receptor in the heart and kidneys that measures blood pressure. antidiuretic hormone (ADH): A hormone that promotes retention of fluid by signaling the kidneys to reduce urine production and by stimulating the release of renin. Also known as vasopressin. vasopressin: Another name for antidiuretic hormone (ADH). renin: A substance released by the kidneys that converts angiotensinogen into angiotensin II. angiotensinogen: A blood protein converted into angiotensin II by renin. angiotensin II: A hormone that constricts blood vessels to maintain blood pressure and triggers the release of aldosterone. aldosterone: A hormone that signals the kidneys to retain sodium. subfornical organ (SFO): An area of the brain, located near the junction of the two lateral ventricles, that regulates drinking. median preoptic nucleus: An area of the hypothalamus that is involved with drinking behavior. nucleus of the solitary tract (NST): A structure in the medulla that pr
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