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Chapter 2

Chapter Two Notes PSYB64

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University of Toronto Scarborough

Chapter Two Notes Phrenology argued that a person’s character could be determined by feeling the lumps on the skull. Anatomical Direction and Planes of section rostral/anterior (RAHS-truhl)A directional term meaning toward the head of a four- legged animal. caudal/posterior (KAW-duhl)A directional term meaning toward the tail of a four- legged animal. inferior / ventral A directional term meaning toward the belly of a four-legged animal. superior / dorsal A directional term meaning toward the back of a four legged animal. neuraxis (ner-AX-is)Animaginary line that runs the length of the spinal cord to the front of the brain – 90 deg bend in humans, straight in 4 legged animals midline Animaginarylinedividing the body into two equal halves. ipsilateral Adirectionalterm referring to structures on the same side of the midline. contralateral Adirectional term referring to structures on opposite sides of the midline. medial Adirectionalterm meaning toward the midline. lateral Adirectionaltermmeaning away from the midline. proximal Adirectionaltermthat means closer to center; usually applied to limbs; opposite of distal. distal Adirectionalterm meaning farther away from another structure, usually in reference to limbs. coronalsection Ananatomical section dividing the brain front to back, parallel to the face. Also known as a frontal section. sagittalsection (SA-ji-tuhl) An anatomical section that is parallel to the midline. midsagittalsection Asagittal section that divides the brain into two approximately equal halves. horizontal/axialsection (AX-ee- uhl) An anatomical section
that divides the brain
from top to bottom Protecting and Supplying the Nervous System Babies born with a soft spot, or fontanel – takes 18 months to fuse meninges (meh-NIN-jees)The layers of membranes that cover the central nervous system
and the peripheral nerves. Going from the skull to the brain, we find the dura mater, the arachnoid layer, and the pia mater. Between the arachnoid and pia mater layers is the subarachnoid space, which contains cerebrospinal fluid. In the peripheral nervous system, only the dura mater and pia mater layers cover the nerves. There is no cerebrospinal fluid in the peripheral nervous system. Only the dura mater and pia mater cover nerves that exit the brain and spinal cord. These nerves are referred to as the peripheral nervous system Viruses and bacteria can invade the layers of the meninges, causing meningitis. Meningitis causes headache and stiffness of the neck, which can be followed by incoherence, drowsiness, coma, and death. CSF cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced by the choroid plexus that lines the walls of the ventricles. From the lateral ventricles, the CSF flows through the third and fourth ventricle and into the central canal of the spinal cord. At the base of the cerebellum, CSF exits into the subarachnoid space and is reabsorbed by veins near the top of the head. CSF cushions the brain and prevents neurons from responding to pressure. Turned over 3 times a day Hydrocephalus –blockage in CSF circulation, can cause mental retardation BLOOD SUPPLY Blood reaches the brain either through the carotid arteries on either side of the neck or through the vertebral arteries entering through the base of the skull. Once in the brain, these arteries branch into the anterior cerebral artery, the middle cerebral artery, and the posterior cerebral artery. Significant brain damage occurs less than three min- utes after the stopping of a person’s heart. CNS =brain and spinal chord – encased in bone – damage here is permanent PNS=nerves – not encased in bone – damage here is not permanent Spinal chord Based on the points of exit, we divide the spinal cord into 31 segments. Starting closest to the brain, there are eight cervical nerves that serve the area of the head, neck, and arms. 12 thoracic nerves, which serve most of the torso. Five lumbar nerves come next, serving the lower back and legs five sacral nerves serve the backs of the legs and the genitals single coccygeal nerve. White matter = axons Dorsal = sensory Ventral =motor Grey matter = cell bodies Dorsal horn receive sensory, ventral horn receive motor (voluntary or reflexive) Patellar reflex – 2 neurons involeved (sensory and motor) Withdrawal – 3 involved (sensory, motor and interneuaron) Cervical damage – quadrapalegic, lmbar damage-parapelegic Hindbrain -just abpve the spinal chord the brain divides into three parts: the hindbrain, midbrain (or mesencephalon), and forebrain. Together, the hindbrain and midbrain make up the brainstem. he hindbrain divides into the myelencephalon, or medulla, and the metencephalon. hindbrain Themostcaudal division of the brain, including the medulla, pons, and cerebellum. midbrain The division of the brain lying between the hindbrain and forebrain. forebrain Thedivisionofthe brain containing the diencephalon and the telencephalon. brainstem The lower two thirds of the brain, including the hindbrain and midbrain. myelencephalon / medulla (my-len-SEF-ah-lon, muh- DOO-luh) The most caudal part of the hindbrain. metencephalon (met-en- SEF-uh-lon) The division of the hindbrain containing the pons and cerebellum. nuclei Collectionsofcellbodies that share a function. reticularformation (reh- TIK-you-ler) A collection of brainstem nuclei, located near the midline from the rostral medulla up into the midbrain, that regulate sleep and arousal. pons Astructurelocatedinthe metencephalon between the medulla and midbrain; part of the brainstem located in the hindbrain. cerebellum (sair-uh-BELL-
um) A structure located in the metencephalon that participates in balance, muscle tone, muscle coordination, some types of learning, and possibly higher cognitive functions in humans. cochlearnucleus (KOKE-lee- er) A nucleus found in the pons that receives information about sound from the inner ear. vestibularnucleus (ves-TIB- you-lar) A group of cell bodies
in the pons that receive input about the location and movement of the head from sensory structures in the inner ear. raphenuclei (RAH-fay) Nuclei located in the pons that participate in the regulation
of sleep and arousal. Locus coeruleus (LOW-kuss se-ROOlee-us) A structure in the pons that participates in arousal. MIDBRAIN mesencephalon Another term for midbrain, the division of the brain lying between the hindbrain and forebrain. tectum The“roof,”ordorsal half, of the midbrain. tegmentum (teg-MEN-tum) The “covering,” or ventral half of the midbrain. cerebralaqueduct (ser-EE-bruhl AHkwi-dukt) The small channel running along the midline of
the midbrain that connects the third and fourth ventricles. It seperates the tectum from the tegmentum periaqueductalgray (pear-ee- AHkweh-duk-tuhl) Gray matter surrounding the cerebral aqueduct of the midbrain that is believed to play a role in the sensation of pain. Red nucleus Astructurelocated within the reticular formation that communicates motor information between the spinal cord and the cerebellum. substantianigra (sub-STAN- shuh NIE-gruh) Midbrain nuclei that communicate with the
basal ganglia of the forebrain. Degeneration results in parkinsons superiorcolliculi (kohl-IK- you-lee) A pair of bumps on the dorsal surface of the midbrain that coordinate visually guided movements and visual reflexes. Inferior colliculi Apairof bumps on the dorsal surface of the midbrain that process auditory information. Auditory reflex FOREBRAIN diencephalon
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