Textbook Notes (362,929)
Canada (158,105)
Psychology (9,565)
PSYB64H3 (197)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Janelle Leboutillier

Chapter 2 • Rostral/anterior- toward head of 4 legged animal • Caudal/posterior- toward the tail • Inferior/ventral- toward the belly • Superior/dorsal- toward the back • Neuroaxis- imaginary line that runs the length of the spinal cord to the front of the brain • In humans, the dorsal parts of the brain form a 90 degree angle with dorsal part of spinal cord • Midline- an imaginary line dividing the body into 2 equal halves • Ipsilateral- structures on the same side of the midline • Contralateral- structures on opposite sides of the midline • Medial- toward the midline • Lateral- away from midline • Proximal- closer to center; usually applied to limbs; opposite of distal • Distal- farther away from another structure, usually in reference to limbs • Coronal section- anatomical section dividing the brain front to back, parallel to the face. Also known as fronal section • Sagittal section- parallel to midline • Midsagittal section- sagittal section that divides the brain into 2 approximately equal halves • Horizontal/ axial section- anatomical section that divides the brain from top to bottom • Meninges- the layers of membranes that cover the central nervous system and the peripheral nerves • Dura mater- the outermost of the 3 layers of meninges, found in both the central and peripheral nervous system. • Arachnoid layer- middle layer of the meninges covering the central nervous system • Pia mater- the innermost of the layers, found in both the central and peripheral nervous systems • Subarachnoid space- space filled with cerebrospinal fluid that lies between the arachnoid and pia mater layers of the meninges in CNS • All 3 layers cover the brain and spinal cord • Only dura mater and pia mater cover nerves that exit the brain and spinal cord • Meningitis- infection of the meninges • Cerebrospinal fluid- special plasma like fluid circulating within the ventricles of the brain, the central canal of the spinal cord and the subarachnoid space • Ventricle- one of 4 hollow spaces within the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid • Choroid plexus- lining of the ventricles which secretes the cerebrospinal fluid • CSF is very similar in composition to the clear plasma of the blood • By floating the brain, the CSF prevents neurons from responding to pressure and providing false information • Hydrocephalus- water on the brain- left untreated, it can cause mental retardation as large quantity of CSF prevents normal growth of the brain ○ Can be treated by installation of shunt to drain off excess fluid • In a spinal tap, the physician withdraws some fluid from th subarachnoid space through a needle • Central canal- the small midline channel in the spinal cord that contains cerebrospinal fluid • Carotid artery- one of 2 major blood vessels that travel up the sides of the neck to supply the brain • Vertebral artery- one of the important blood vessels that enter the brain from the back of the skull • Because the brain is unable to store energy, any interruption of the blood supply produces damage very quickly • Significant brain damage occurs less than 3 mins after the stopping of a person’s heart • Central nervous system- the brain and spinal cord • Peripheral nervous system- the nerves exiting the brain and spinal cord that serve sensory and motor functions for the rest of the body • CNS is encased in bone but tissue of the PNS is not • CSF circulates within layers covering CNS but not PNS • Damage to CNS is permanent, recovery can occur in PNS • Spinal cord- long cylinder of nerve tissue extending from the medulla to the first lumbar vertebra • Vertebral column- the bones of the spinal column that protect and enclose the spinal cord • Spinal cord divided into 31 segments • Cervical nerve- one of the first 8 spinal nerves that serve the area of the head, neck and arms • Thoracic nerve- one of 12 pairs of spinal nerves that serve the torso • Lumbar nerve- one of the 5 spinal nerves serving the lower back and legs • Sacral nerve- one of the 5 spinal nerves that serve the backs of the legs and the genitals • Coccygeal nerve- the most caudal of the spinal nerves • The spinal cord is the original information super highway • White matter- area of the neural tissue primarily made up of myelinated axons • Gray matter- area of neural tissue primarily made up of cell bodies • Dorsal horns- gray matter in spinal cord that contains sensory neurons • Ventral horns- gray matter in spinal cord that contains motor neurons • Reflex involuntary action or response • Patellar reflex- the knee jerk reflex, a spinal reflex in which tapping below the knee produces a reflexive contraction of the quadriceps muscle of the high, causing the foot to kick • Withdrawal reflex- a spinal reflex that pulls a body part away from a source of pain • Damage to spinal cord results in loss of sensation and loss of voluntary movement in parts of the body served by nerves located below the damaged area • In all cases of spinal injury, bladder and bowel functions are no longer under voluntary control • Hindbrain- the most caudal division of the brain, including medulla, pons and cerebellum • Midbrain (mesencephalon)- division of brain lying between the hindbrain and forebrain • Forebrain- division of brain containing the diencephalon and telencephalon • Brainstem- lower 2 thirds of the brain, including the hindbrain and midbrain • Hindbrain divides into myelencephalon/medulla and metencephalon • Myelencephalon/medulla- most caudal part of hindbrain ○ Large quantity of white matter ○ Contains number of nuclei • Nuclei- collections of cell bodies that share a function • Reticular formation- collection of brainstem nuclei located near midline from the rostral medulla up into the midbrain that regulate sleep and arousal • Metencephalon- division of hindbrain containing pons and cerebellum • Pons- structure located in metencephalon that participates in balance, muscle tone, muscle coordination, some types of learning and possibly higher cognitive functions in hu
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