Textbook Notes (362,879)
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Psychology (9,549)
PSYB64H3 (197)
Chapter 15

Chapter 15 Textbook Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Janelle Leboutillier

PSYB64: An Introduction to Physiological Psychology Chapter 15: Neurological Disorders Brain Damage - Soccer players perform worse on tests for attention, memory, and planning compared to swimmers and track athletes o Many have cerebral atrophy because of head injuries - Brain protected by skull bonesmeninges, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF ), and blood-brain barrier Stroke - Cells in nervous system (NS) rely on oxygen which is supplied by rich network of blood vessels o Circulation of blood to neural tissue can be rupturedblocked J can cause serious damage to brain - Stroke = type of brain damage caused by an interruption of blood supply to the brain - Risk factors of stroke = age, hypertension, smoking, diabetes, high cholesterol, obesity, alcohol use, cocaine, amphetamines, heroin, and other drugs - Atherosclerosis also increases risk of stroke = when arteries are narrowedhardened - Cerebral hemorrhage = condition caused by bleeding in the brain o Gradually results from hypertension (high blood pressure) or structural defects in arteries serving brain o Sometimes occur due to aneurysms = balloon-like bulge in artery wall o Can occur from diseases J leukemia, exposure to toxic chemicals, etc. o Usually fatal because of damage produced by blocking blood supply to neurons and flooding areas of brain with salty blood that dehydrates and kills neurons - Ischemia = condition where inadequate blood flow results in insufficient quantities of oxygen being delivered to tissue o Low oxygen levels o Can result in neural tissue death in an area = infarct J causes changes in consciousness, sensation, ability to move (depends on sizelocation) - Transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) = brief (less than 24 hours) episode of stroke symptoms that }ZL[ ZKLLK2J strong predictors of subsequent strokes - Thrombosis = blockage Z}ZL[K} from its point of origin in blood vessel - Embolism = blood vessel blockage that travel through smaller and smaller blood vessels until forms actually blockage o Blockage in small blood vessels are less damaging thanin large blood vessels but multiple small strokes can cause damage - Cells in middle layers of cortex and hippocampus are most vulnerable to ischemia - Excitotoxicity J John Olney = ability of excess glutamate to kill neurons o Now believe that cell death after stroke is caused by excess glutamate activity triggered by lack of oxygen - Excess glutamate in neuron initiates cascade of events J leads to cell death www.notesolution.com
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