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Psychology (9,545)
PSYB64H3 (197)
Chapter 1

all chapter notes for midterm (chapters 1,2,3,5,9) - very detailed !

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Janelle Leboutillier

Chapter 1 Biological Psychology as an interdisciplinary Field Biologically psychology is the branch of psychology in which biological foundations of behaviour, emotions, and mental processes are studied. Historical Highlights in Biological Psychology Trephining or trepanation was evidence of brain surgery 7000 years ago by drilling holes in the skull. Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus represents the oldest known medical writing in history did not consider the brain to be important. Hippocrates proposed that the brain was the source of intelligence and correctly identified epilepsy as originating in the brain. Aristotle believed that the heart was the source of intellect, whereas Herophilus (father of anatomy) believed that the ventricles played this important role. Descartes mind body dualism the body is mechanistic, whereas the mind is separate and nonphysical. Biological psychology is based on monism the mind is viewed as the product of the activity in the brain and nervous system. Transmission of information along nerves is typically a one way street. Phrenology is the pseudoscientific notion that the skull contours indicate personality and character traits. Research Methods In Biological Psychology Histology refers to the study of microscopic structures and tissues and provide means for observing the structure, organization, and connections of individual cells. The first step in the histological process is to fix the tissue, either by freezing it or by treating it with formalin. Once the tissue is fixed, it is sliced by microtome which works like a mini meat slicer. Golgi silver stain is best to make a detailed structure analysis of a small number of single cells. Nissl stain should be used when you want to identify clusters of cell bodies. A myelin stain would allow you to follow pathways carrying information from one part of hte brain to another. Horseradishh peroxidise is when you know where a pathway ends and want to discover its origin. Autopsy examination of the body following death. This is a correlational method and must be interpreted carefully and precisely. Therefore , INAH-3 is correlated with sexual oreination, but we cannot conclude whether the structure causes or is caused by sexual orientation. Imaging: Computerized Tomography (CT) computers that enhance x-ray images. Provides excellent structural information but cannot distinguish between a living or deal cell which means there is no information regarding activity levels in the brain. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) allows researchers to observe brain activity for the first time and was made possible by gamma camera. PET brain studies combine radioactive tracers with a wide variety of molecules like oxygen, water, and drugs. Gamma ray resulting from the breakdown of the tracer is recorded by detectors and fed to a computer in which the data constructs an image. www.notesolution.com Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) uses powerful magnets to align hydrogen atoms within a magnetic field. Then, radio frequencies are directed at the part of the body to be imaged, producing resonace or spinning of the hydrogen atoms. When the RF pulses cease, the hydrogen atoms return to their natural aligment and as the atoms relax, each becomes a miniature radio transmitter emitting a pulse that is detected. Voxel (volume pixel) is a three dimensional version of a pixel and the darkness or coloration of each voxel represents the level of activity in an area. fMRI assess brain activity. fMRI uses the fact that active neurons require more oxygen than less active neurons, and that variations in blood flow on a particular area will reflect this need. Hemoglobin, the protein molecule that carries oxygen within the blood has different magnetic properties when combined with oxygen or not and signals from a voxel will change depending on the oxygenation of the blood in that area this is known as the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect. MRI is better than CT and PET because it can provide images taken at any angle without any movement of the individual. fMRI is also better than PET scans. Recording: The electroencephalogram (EEG) measure the activity of a large number of cells, known as a field potentials. Most influenced by the cortical cells closest to the electrodes. Evoked potentials allows researchers to correlate the activity of cortical sensory neurons recorded through scalp electrodes with stimuli presented to the participant. ERP average of 100 or more EEG recordings. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) record the brains magnetic activity. Active neurons put out tiny magnetic fields. The skull bones and tissues allow magnetism to pass through without any reduction and thus this is better than EEG in this way. MEG data can be superimposed on three dimensional images obtained with MRI and this combo can provide simultaneous information about brain activity and anatomy. Single cell recordings both extracellular and intracellular events from a single neuron can be assessed using tiny mircoelectrodes surgically implanted in the area of interest. Brain stimulation: the tissues of the brain lack receptors for brain and therefore local anaesthesia is usually used. For ethical reasons, brain stimulation is done on animals rather than on humans. Repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a technique for stimulating the cortex at regular intervals by applying a magnetic pulse through a wire coil encased in plastic and placed on the scalp this can help temporarily change brain activity immediately below the stimulation site can inhibit or disinhibit certain behaviours. Lesion injury to neural tissue and can either be naturally occurring or purposefully produced primary purpose is to assess the probable function of an area. Ablation is when large areas of brain tissue are surgically removed. Chemically produced lesions have the advantage of harming only the cell bodies of neurons while leaving the nerve fibres travelling through the area intact. A reversible type of lesion can be produced by cooling an area using a probe the neurons are unable to function when chilled but return to normal function when it returns to normal temperature. www.notesolution.com
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