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Psychology (9,545)
PSYB64H3 (197)
Chapter 3

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

PSYB64Chapter 3 Cells of the Nervous System Neurons and Glia2 types of cells neurons and gliaNeuron is specialized to carry out the functions of info processing and communicationThe glia serve a variety of support functions for neurons1015 glia for every neuronThe Structure of NeuronsMany of the organelles are found in the soma or cell bodyNeurons are different from other cells in that they have axons and dendrites which are used to communicate with other cellsNeuron membranes o The neural membrane must separate the intracellular fluid of the cells interior from the extracellular fluid surrounding the neuron o The neural membrane is made up of a double layer of phospholipids which do not dissolve water and because of this property the neural membrane is able to restrain the water based fluids on either sides maintain the structural integrity of the cell o Within this layer there are protein structures that control its permeability The primary types of protein structures are ion channels and ion pumps o Ion channels allow ions to move passively whereas the ion pumps are active o Both ion channels and ion pumps show selectivity in ions the amino acids that make up the ion channels or pump determines which ions will be allowed to pass through o Voltagegated channels open and close in response to the electrical status of adjacent areas of membrane o Ligandgated channels open when they come in contact with specific chemicals which are typically naturally occurring chemical messengers but can be drugs from artificial sources o Most important pumps in neurons are sodiumpotassium pumps and calcium pumps o Sodiumpotassium pumps help maintain the differences in chemical composition between the intracellular and extracellular fluids and they do a prisoner exchange across the neural membrane by sending 3 sodium out while taking 2 potassium in o Calcium pumps do a similar job but they do not exchange they pump calcium out The Neural Cytoskeleton o The cytoskeleton provides structural support to the neuron o 3 types of filaments make up the skeletonMicrotubuleslargest of the 3 responsible for movement of various material in the cell anterograde movement soma to axon terminal and retrograde movement periphery to soma implicated in development of Alzheimers normally tau protein connects the microtubules but in Alzheimers tau levels become too high and they disconnect from the microtubules and get tangled causing neurofibrillary tangles hinders cells ability to signal and maintain structure leading to neuronal deathNeurofilamentsmost common in the neuron run parallel to the length of the axon and provide structural support
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