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PSYB64H3 (201)
Chapter 14

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Zachariah Campbell

PSYB64Chapter 14 Emotion Reward Aggression and StressEmotionhas 2 major components o physical sensationex rapid heartbeat o conscious subjective experience or feelingex Feeling scaredemotions display valence positive or negative qualityThe Evolution of Emotiona possible advantage of emotions is their contribution to general arousal emotions provide the arousal needed to trigger a responsefor a simple task greater arousal tends to lead to superior performance but for complex tasks there is deficit in performance when arousal levels are too highemotions manage our approach and withdrawal behaviors relative to environmental stimuli positive emotions associated with eating contribute to our seeking food when we are hungry and negative emotions elicited by rotting food lead to avoidance of food providing advantage for survivalemotions enhance survival by helping us communicate nonverbal communication such as facial expression and body languageExpression and Recognition of Emotion Controlling Facial Expressions o Infants prefer gazing at faces rather than at other visual stimuli o Movement of the human face is controlled by the facial nerve VII and trigeminal nerve V o Facial nerve controls superficial muscles attached to skin responsible for facial expressions o Trigeminal nerves control deeper facial muscles attached to bones of head responsible for chewing and speaking o Facial nuclei receive input from primary motor cortex in the precentral gyrus of frontal lobeo Upper third of face receives input from ipsilateral and contralateral facial nerveo 2 major pathways control facial expression one involving input from motor cortex responsible for voluntary expression and other from subcortical system responsible for spontaneous expression o Volitional facial paresiscondition in which the ability to express voluntary emotion is impaired o People with Parkinsons involves substantia nigra and basal ganglia lose the ability to smile on command Biological Influences on Emotional Expression o Major emotional expressions anger sadness happiness fear disgust surprise contempt and embarrassment o Infants who are blind from birth show a progression in development of social smiling that is similar to that of sighted infants even though they cannot observe and learn
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