Textbook Notes (363,666)
Canada (158,520)
Psychology (9,578)
PSYB64H3 (197)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5

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Janelle Leboutillier

Page 124133 Genome set of instructions for constructing a human being each 100 trillion cells in your body with the exception of red sperm and egg cells contain two complete copies of genomesYour personal setgenotypewhich interaqcts with environmental influences to producephenotype your observable characteristics Genotype consists of 23 matched pairs of chromosomeChromosomes are made up of molecules of DNAsmaller segments of dna form GENES each gene contains instructions for making a particular protein Gene expression occurs when these genetic instructions are converted into afeature of a living cellVast majority of DNA is found in the chromosomes some DNA is located in Mitochondria all mDNA originates from mother and mutates at a fairly regular ratethus mDNA is especially useful to scientists interested in evolutionDifferent phenotypical traits result from the interactions between alternative versions of a particular gene known as alleleswithin each chromosome can only have at max 2 allelesTwo identifical alleleshomozygous for that gene 2 diff allelesherterozygous for that gene Recessive allele will produce its phenotype only when it occurs ina homozygous pair Dominant allele produces a pheotypical trait regardless of whether its pair is homozygous or heterozygousThere are few genes that do not follow these rules of dominance Approximately 1 percent of mammals genes are imprinted which means that only one allele is expressed The identity of the expressed gene depends on which parent supplied the allele in other words only the fathers version is expressed in the case of some genes and only the mothers in others From Genes to Proteins genes constructed from combinations of four biochemicals known as bases of nucleotines Adenine A cytosine C guanine G and thmine T sequences of bases in DNA are translated into proteins Strand of dna produces a copy of itself on a strand of RNAthe bases along the DNA and RNA strands occur inroups of three known as codons each codon provides instructions for the production of one of 20 amino acids which are joined by ribosomes to form a chainwhen complete the chian folds into a shape based on its amino acid sequence and is now officially a proteinWe are uniquely human due to our proteomethe set of proteins encoded and expressed by the genome Sources of genetic diversity Egg and sperm cells are formed through the process of meiosisin meiosis the parental chromosome pairs are divided I n half leaving only one chromosome from each pair in an egg or sperm cellwhen the egg and sperm cells from the two parents combine the resulting zygote once again contains the full complement of 23 pairs of chormosmes
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