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PSYB64H3 (201)
Chapter 1

PSYB64- Chapter 1.pdf

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Janelle Leboutillier

Nina 20 September, 2012 11:34 AM Fwd: Chapter 1 From Evernote: Chapter 1 ! Myth: " We only use 10% of brain " Misleading. Probably came around b/c Pierre Flourens performed surgery and removed large sections of the brain and the animal was still able to function " We use each part of our brain, each has a specific role to play " Even a small amount of damage to the brain would severely impair functioning ! Human brain " Take up 5% of the body’s mass " Consumes 20% of the body’s oxygen and glucose ! Biological Psychology " Study of the biological foundation for behavior & emotions " Relationship between nervous system & observable behaviour is circular, meaning each can cause the other (not unidirectional) # Key points · Circular relationship · Biological foundation (explanation) ! Historical Highlights in Biological Psychology " In the past, not everyone knew brain’s role as intelligence & central control centre for movement, sensation etc. Time Period Key Person Key Event 3000 BC Evidence of trepanation (drilling holes in skull to release demons) 400 BC-200 AD Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus -oldest medical writing -observed membrane & cortex convulations of brain -understood paralysis was from nervous system damage -damage was considered untreatable 300 BC Hippocrates -Greeks believed the brain was the organ for sensation -said brain is source of intelligence -correctly identified epilepsy as originating in brain Aristotle -believed that the heart was centre of intellect Herophilus -believed that ventricles in brain play an important role 200 BC Roman empire -made an error that influenced our thinking for 1500 years -believed ventricles play an important role in transmitting messages 1600-1800 Descartes ! process of reflex: " nerves sense heat, pores open in brain, releasing animal spirits that moved through hollow tubes then filled muscles causing it to move from the heat ! Mind-body dualism " Body & mind are separate " Mind not physical or accessible " Body works mechanically " This dualism still influences ppl today e.g. don’t believe we can study personality by watching activity of neurons (at this point, Anton van -invented light microscope Galen/Descartes Leuwenhoek -microscope allowed brain to be studied further fluid theory was discarded) Benjamin -better understanding of electricity Franklin " finish typing in notebook notes -outline notes -lost notes Lesion damage to neural tissue (natural or deliberate) primary purpose is to assess probable function of area interpretation must be done carefully because lesion in brain may affect channels and other parts deliberate lesions sometimes done on humans e.g. epilepsy treatments ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) stimulated: animal stops eating lesions: animal eats so much that body weight doubles or triples way to perform deliberate lesions: surgically remove (better known as ablation) electrode surgically inserted and then heats up, killing a small population of cells surrounding it apply neurotoxins (chemicals that kill neurone) through surgically implanted micropipette
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