Textbook Notes (369,198)
Canada (162,457)
Psychology (9,699)
PSYB64H3 (201)
Chapter 1

PSYB45-TextbookNotes.Chap 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,11,12docx

24 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB64H3
Professor
Matthias Niemeier

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PSYB45 Behaviour Modification Chapter 1 Introduction to Behaviour Modification Defining Human Behaviour behaviour - what people do and day o behaviour is not static and is a process; not product behaviours have one or more dimensions that can be measured: o frequency count the number of times a behaviour occurs o duration the time from when an instance of the behaviour starts until it stops o intensity the physical force involved in the behaviour behaviours have an impact on the environment, including the physical or social environment o ex. turning on a light switch, and the light goes on an effect on the physical environment o ex. raising you hand and asking a question in class an effect on other people (social) behaviour is lawful; its occurrence is systematically influenced by environmental events behaviours may be overt or covert o an overt behaviour an action that can be observed and recorded by a person other than the one engaging in the behaviour o covert (aka. private events) are not observable to others ex. thinking behaviour modification is the field of psychology concerned with analyzing and modifying human behaviour o analyzing identifying the functional relationship between environmental events and a particular behaviour to understand the reasons for behaviour or to determine why a person behave the way they did o modifying developing and implementing procedures to help people change their behaviour it involves altering environmental events so as to influence behaviour Characteristics of Behaviour Modification focus on behaviour designed to change behaviour, NOT a personal characteristic or trait o target behaviour the behaviour to be modified o behavioural excess an undesirable target behaviour the person wants to decrease in frequency, duration, or intensity ex. smoking o behavioural deficit desirable target behaviour the person wants to increase in frequency, duration, or intensity ex. studying procedures based on behavioural principles o experimental analysis of behaviour the scientific study of behaviour o applied behavioural analysis scientific study of human behaviour emphasis on current environmental events assessing and modifying the current environmental events that are functionally related to the behaviour human behaviour is controlled by events in the immediate environment, and the goal of behaviour modification is to identify those events these events are known as controlling variables Historical Roots Ivan P. Pavlov o conducted experiments that uncovered the basic processes of respondent conditioning o demonstrated that a reflex (salivation in response to food) could be conditioned to a neutral stimulus responding to a neutral stimulus = Pavlov called this a conditioned reflex o conditioned reflex, respondent conditioning (aka. classical conditioning) Edward L. Thorndike o law of effect a behaviour that produces a favourable effect on the environment is more likely to be repeated in the future cat in cage to get food operant conditioning John B. Watson o said that observable behaviour was the proper subject matter of psychology, and that all behaviour was controlled by only environmental events o described a stimulus-response psychology in which environmental events (stimuli) elicits responses o little Albert (baby) experiments played with the rat, was punished with loud noise with repeated replication, Albert associated the rat with bad stimulus = rat became unpleasant o father of behaviourism B.F. Skinner o explained the distinction between respondent conditioning (the conditioned reflexes described by Pavlov and Watson) and operant conditioning operant conditioning the consequence of behaviour controls future occurrences of the behaviour (ex. as in Thorndikes Law of Effect cat) o the foundation of behaviour modification Areas of Application developmental disabilities mental illness education and special education rehabilitation community psychology clinical psychology Chapter 2 Observing and Recording Behaviour behavioural assessment measurement of the target behaviour (or behaviours) behavioural assessment is important for a number of reasons: o measuring the behaviour before the treatment provides information that can help you determine whether treatment is necessary o behavioural assessment can provide information that helps you choose the best treatment o measuring the target behaviour before and after treatment allows you to determine whether the behaviour changed after the treatment was implemented there are two types of behavioural assessment: o direct o indirect indirect assessment involves interviews, questionnaires and rating scales to obtain information on the behaviour from the person exhibiting the behaviour or from others direct assessment person observes and records the target behaviour as it occurs in vivo direct assessment is usually more accurate than indirect assessment information about the behaviour is recorded immediately however with indirect assessment, information is based on peoples memories Defining the Target Behaviour to define the target behaviour, you must identify exactly what the person says or does that constitutes the behavioural excess or deficit a behavioural definition includes active verbs and is objective and unambiguous interobserver reliability when two people independently observe the same behaviour and both record that the behaviour occurred The Logistics of Recording The Observer the observer must have proximity to the client self-monitoring the observer is the person exhibiting the behaviour is valuable when it is not possible for another observer to record the target behaviour, as when the behaviour occurs infrequently or when it occurs only when no one else is present o self-monitoring may also be combined with direct observation ex. hair pulling Where and When to Record observation period the observer records the target behaviour in a specific period it is important to choose an observation period at the time when the target behaviour is likely to occur o indirect assessment information from the client or others may indicate the best times to schedule the observation period ...observation of behaviour can take place in: natural setting consists of the places in which the target behaviour typically occurs normal routine o observation in a natural setting is likely to provide a more representative sample of the target behaviour contrived setting not being part of the daily routine ex. a play clinic o the target behaviour may be influenced by the contrived setting, and observation in this setting may provide a sample that is not representative of the behaviour under normal circumstances o researchers simulate events that are likely to occur in natural settings o benefits: more controlled, and the variables that influence the behaviour are easier to manipulate ...observation of the target behaviour can be: structured the observer arranges for specific events or activities to occur during the observation period unstructured no specific events, activities or instructions are given during the observation period Choosing a Recording Method Continuous Recording continuous recording the observer observes the client continuously throughout the observation period and records each occurrence of the behaviour o to do so, the observer must be able to identify the onset and the offset of each instance of the behaviour in continuous recording, the observer can record various dimensions of the target behaviour: o frequency the number of times the behaviour occurs in an observation period count counting, one occurrence is defined as onset, and one offset of the behaviour frequency may be reported as rate, which is = frequency/time of observation period o duration the total amount of time occupied by the behaviour from start to finish measure the duration of a behaviour by timing it from its onset to its offset duration may be reported as percentage of time, which is = duration/time of the observation period some researchers use a real-time recording method the exact time of each onset and offset of the target behaviour is recorded o with real-time recording, the researchers have a record of the frequency and duration of the target behaviour, as well as the exact timing of each occurrence of the behaviour o intensity the amount of
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