WHAT IS SPATIAL ABILITY?
o Position, direction, movement, orientation of objects in space.
o Has 6 basic components:
Targeting how well you can throw an object at a target
Spatial orientation how well can you recognize items in different orientations
Spatial location memory how well can you remember the location of the object
Spatial visualization how well can you imagine how well pieces of an object fit
Disembedding how well can you find figures hidden in other pictures.
Spatial perception how well can you determine where horizontal or vertical is in real
life even if you are given distracting info.
HEMISPHERIC REPRESENTATION OF SPACE
o Right hemisphere is responsible for spatial processing
o Neurologically normal people can identify the location of a dot more readily when it appears
in the left visual field superiority of the right hemisphere
o Depth perception ability to determine relative position of an object
Local depth perception using detailed features of objects point by point to assess
relative position right hemisphere is better
Global depth perception using the difference between the information reaching each
eye to compute the entire visual field left visual field advantage
o Line orientation localize a line and identify its orientation right hemisphere advantage
o Determining spatial relationships between objects may rely on ability to determine whether
or not an item shares spatial properties with another and it also relied on the ability to
reconstruct previously viewed items right hemisphere advantage
o Tracking moving objects relates to our ability to determine where an object is currently and
where it will be momentarily right hemisphere activation
o Mental rotation rotation that does not occur visibly relies on right hemisphere.
o Dorsal visual stream the how pathway; know how motor acts must be performed to
manipulate an object; supports spatial processing of info
o Areas 5 and 7 respond to movements that occur in specific directions, allowing objects to be
tracked in space.
Responds the best to movements that are similar in speed to either walking or running
Area 7 Analyze space and update positions of objects in space.
o Receives information from auditory, somatosensory and visual association cortices of the
o Works with the parietal lobe to program motor movements aimed at reaching and grasping
objects in space
o Also has a nuclei for head and eye movements
o Temporal lobe, specially the hippocampal formation is also involved in tasks that requires
o The hippocampus appears to engage in processing memory for places how to get home
Damage to the hippocampal functions can’t form new memory for places but the
ones already formed before the damage stays intact When we interact with the spatial locations of objects, we can utilize three types of information
Position responses made with movements using the body as a referent
o Requires only information about your body
Cued responses guided by a cue; relies on perception that is external to your body
o Require information that compares your body with another object
Place responses responses you make towards a particular location or object
o Use knowledge that you gained about the environment previously
PERSONAL REPRESENTATION OF SPACE
Interpersonal space the space that your body occupies and/or within arm’s reach of your body
Dorsal stream performs controlling movements directed at personal space.
Position responses are performed in intrapersonal space, as they require monitoring the space with
respect to your body.
Acredolo test test of spatial ability.
o A person