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Canada (161,820)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYB65H3 (479)
Ted Petit (185)
Chapter 8

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Ted Petit

Chapter 8 Module 8.1 THE AUDITORY SYSTEM  THE PROPERTIES OF SOUND o Frequency: is the physical dimension  Refers to the RATE OF VIBRATION  Measured in Hertz (Hz)  Humans can only hear between 20-20000 Hz  Frequency is different from speed sounds travels at around 340 meters/second  Pitch: the perceptual dimension of frequency  The higher the frequency, the higher the pitch o Amplitude: the physical dimension  Waves of different intensities differ in the degree to which the high point and the low point differ from each other.  Measures in decibels (dB)  Conversational speech tends to occur at 40-60 dB  Loudness: the perceptual dimension  The bigger the difference between the high and low parts of the wave, the louder the sound o Complexity: the physical dimension  Most sounds are composed of a wide variety of frequencies and intensities (pitch and loudness)  Along with the intended frequency (the fundamental frequency) an instrument usually produces overtone too (frequencies higher than but related to the fundamental frequency)  Timbre: the perceptual dimension o Sounds are changing at all times and both our ears hear different things but still all these information are effortlessly integrated into an unitary perception.  THE EAR o Transduction detecting and amplifying subtle vibrations in the air and transforming these into neural signals o The pathway of sound:  basilar Audito oval or Pinna ry ear ear ossicle windo cochlea tectori hair meatu canal drum s w al cells s membr ane o The outer ear  Pinna and external ear canal catch and amplify vibrations o The middle ear  Ear drum, ossicles (Malleus, incus and stapes) and oval window transduced into mechanical energy o The inner ear  Mechanical to neural energy  The cochlea and the components Organ of Corti  Inner hair cells receptors of the auditory system o Cilia  Arranged in order of height  When the cilia moves in the direction of the tallest cilium, fibres within the cilia are stretched increased firing in the axons of the cochlea nerves  When the cilia moves in the opposite direction low firing rate  Outer hair cells modulatory role; help tune the cochlea through the contractions and relaxations  WHAT MAKES THE CILIA MOVE?  The hair cells are located along the basilar membrane and adjacent to the hair cells is the tectorial membrane  The sound waves causes the 2 membranes to flex and this movement cause the cochlear fluid to flow past the cilia, bending them.  Different sections of cochlea responds to different frequencies referred to as tonotopic frequency specific sensory organization o Part of basilar membrane closest to the oval window higher frequency o Part near to the apex lower frequency  AUDITORY PATHWAYS o Axons from the cranial nerve form a branch of the eighth cranial nerve, which synapses on the ipsilateral cochlear nuclei. o Cochlear nuclei Superior olivesinferior collicus Medial Geniculate nucleus of the hypothalamus primary auditory cortex  AUDITORY CORTEX o Neurons in the auditory cortex is also arranged in tonotpic manner  The columns at the anterior region high frequency  The columns at the posterior regions low frequency o Secondary auditory cortex areas immediately adjacent to the primary also tonotopic MODULE 8.2 LANGUAGE SYSTEMS IN THE BRAIN o MODELS OF SPOKEN LANGUAGE o 3 distinct ones  “Broca’s Area”  The third gyri on the left frontal lobe  Broca said it was an unitary function only one area involved  “Wernicke’s Area”  Left temporal lobe  Wernicke said 2 areas were involved; one for output and one for input  Also proposed that these 2 centres will need to be connected for communication ARCUATE FASCICULUS  Wernicke-Lichtheim-Geschwind model  Incorporated the angular gyrus that is located at the junction between occipital, temporal and parietal lobe and it provides a basis for visual language.  Explains spontaneous speech accessing the mappings of sounds to meaning in Wernicke’s area via arcuate fasciculus Broca’s area  Account for processing of visual language information o Perceived by the visual system angular gyrus Wernicke’s area  LIMITATIONS: o Oversimplification of the visual language processing and omission o MODELS OF VISUAL LANGUAGE o Most recent visual language models are divided into 2 categories  SINGLE ROUTE MODELS  Subserved by a single network  DUAL ROUTE MODELS  2 distinctive routes for receptive visual language and collectively they are called dual route models o PHONOLOGICAL ROUTE  Phoneme-grapheme conversion rule:  Phoneme: small pronounceable meaningful unit of sound/language  Grapheme: smallest units of written language letters  With this we can read unknown words that follows the rules  We cannot read irregular words  Can also read pseudo-homophones words that sound real but are not. o WHOLE WORD ROUTE  Can only be used when you remember the word  You can pronounce irregular words using this rule  Activation in the posterior part of the left superior temporal gyrus. o PROSODY AND THE ROLE OF RIGHT HEMISPHERE IS LANGUAGE PROCESSING o PROSODY: conveying the meaning of an word by varying the intonation in speech, includi
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