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PSYB65 ~ Ch 10, 11, 15, 16 Textbook Notes.docx

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Ted Petit

PSYB65 ~ Final Textbook Notes CHAPTER 10: SPATIAL ABILITY (323-342) MODULE 10.1 – SPATIAL ABILITY WHAT IS SPATIAL ABILITY  spatial ability: processing position, direction, or movement of objects or points in space  space is construct that includes real space (what you can sense right now) and imagined space (space you can think about when though can’t directly experience it right now)  when factory analysis used to define spatial ability, made up of 6 skills that correspond to ways we interact with space:  targeting: how well you can throw object at target  spatial orientation: how well you can recognize items even when they’re placed in different orientations, or directions  spatial location memory: how well you can remember location of objects  spatial visualization: how well you can imagine how well pieces of an object would go together  disembedding: how well you can find figures hidden within other pictures  spatial perception: how well you can determine where horizontal or vertical is in real world even if given distracting info HEMISPHERIC REPRESENTATION OF SPACE  most basic spatial ability is ability to locate point in space  to localize point in space, need to know where point is absolutely and relative position of that point; to know whether point occupies same location as another point requires depth perception  neurologically normal people can identify location of dot more readily when it occurs in left visual field; interpreted as being indicative of superiority of RH (right hemisphere) for processing spatial location  RH (especially right pre-frontal cortex) appears to be involved with recall of spatial location info  depth perception: ability to determine relative position of object; another very basic spatial ability; 2 types:  local depth perception: ability to use detailed features of objects point by point to asses relative position  global depth perception: ability to use difference between information reaching each eye to compute entire visual scene  RH better at determining global depth perception  determination of which object in front of another shows left VF (visual field) advantage in normals; both left and RH legions disrupt local depth perception  line orientation: ability to localize a line and identify its orientation  RH advantage for both tactile and visual assessment of line orientation  if lines can be described verbally (“horizontal”, “vertical”), often LH advantage emerges  object geometry: whether or not item shares spatial properties with another  RH advantage for judgement of similarity between curved lines when using either visual or tactile modalities  decisions regarding whether or not complex novel figure had been viewed previously more accurate when figure presented in left VF; RH superior at this task  motion detection and prediction of trajectory are fundamental and complex spatial abilities  in humans, detection of motion related to increased activity in RH; particularly in occipital, temporal, and parietal areas associated with processing of visual info  mental rotation: rotation that does not occur overtly; abilities rely on RH, as measured by enhanced accuracy in left VF or tasks of mental rotation that result in greater activation of RH PARIETAL LOBES  visual info received in primary visual area (area V1 of occipital lobe or striate cortex), transferred to other areas of occipital lobe  beyond occipital lobes, info appears to be divided into complementary dorsal and ventral streams  ventral visual stream considered “what” pathway useful for identifying objects  dorsal visual stream considered “how pathway”; one role is to know how motor acts must be performed to manipulate object; supports spatial processing of info; projects from primary visual areas to parietal regions  properties of cells within areas 5 and 7 sensitive to certain attributes that allow stable cognitive maps to be made  don’t receive much info about colour of object or fine details of object, needed to identify object  seem to respond to movements that occur in specific directions, allowing objects to be tracked in space  respond best to movements similar in speed to walking or running  sensitivity in movement allows area 7 to analyze space and update positions of objects in space  cells in inferior parietal region sensitive to retinotopic representations of space as well as head position, movement, and speed of movement  monkeys with parietal lobe lesions appear to be quite impaired at computing spatial relations among objects; human brains work similarly  discrimination of form involves ventral stream, discrimination of spatial location involves dorsal stream  greater activation in right parietal lobes when participants asked to perform tasks that required processing of spatial location  some cells in parietal lobe sensitive to visual qualities of object (ex. texture); influence how hands manipulate an object  properties of dorsal stream of parietal lobe well suited to processing info about how to interact with objects and where they are in space  reciprocal connections of parietal lobes with frontal lobes that make dorsal stream important for coordinating movements with spatial locations of objects FRONTAL LOBES  system of parietal cells that project to areas of frontal lobes, to both premotor and prefrontal cortex  these areas receive massive inputs from somatosensory, auditory, and visual association areas of parietal lobes  associative nature of inputs to this system suggest that one of functions is to provide accurate coordinate system of visual space and to locate objects in space  neurons in posterior parietal cortex respond to stimuli within grasping space and project to frontal motor system to guide movements  within frontal lobes, also nuclei responsible for directing head and eye movements toward stimuli in grasping space  communicate extensively with parietal lobes, further enhancing our ability to program motor movements aimed at reaching and grasping objects in space  visuospatial working memory: short-term visuospatial memory; reflected by activation of dorsal premotor cortex  studies also found parietal lobe activation, with activation in other, more frontal areas, including inferior, middle, and precentral gyri and superior frontal sulcus  also activation within motor areas of frontal lobes, particularly those involved in moving head, such as frontal eye fields and presupplementary motor area  appears to reflect potential planning of motor movements required if imagined task were real  particularly evident in patients with dorsolateral prefrontal lesions; most impaired when visuospatial working memory required to guide motor responses  performance of visuospatial working memory tasks engage dorsal stream, and its connections to frontal lobe TEMPORAL LOBES  evidence suggests dorsal stream involved in identifying where object is in space and guiding motor movements  evidence suggests ventral stream involved in identifying of object (deciding what object it)  studies that implicated parietal and frontal lobes playing role in spatial localization of objects have found that these tasks resulted in increased activity in temporal lobes  temporal lobes, specifically hippocampal formation, also involved in tasks that require spatial learning  hippocampal formation located within temporal lobes; includes dentate gyrus, specific areas of hippocampus, and subiculum  hippocampus receives info from entorhinal cortex, which receives major inputs from various cortical association areas; hippocampus well placed to integrate info from variety of cortical and subcortical areas  hippocampus appears to engage in processing memory for places; damage to hippocampal formation results in inability to form new memories for places and difficulty in utilizing spatial info to produce memories about places  place cells within hippocampus respond when rat moving through space; some cells respond only to certain locations, other cells respond only to other locations  cells within hippocampus respond preferentially and selectively to spatial locations; these cells may form basis of hippocampus to form memories about space  when we interact with spatial locations of objects, can utilize 3 types of info about object:  position responses: made with movements using body as referent; don’t need any cues external to body, relatively automatic  cued responses: movements guided by cue(changes in how we perceive stimulus); rely on perception of info external to body  place responses: made toward particular location or object; can be made when stimulus not currently present; tend to be relational  intrapersonal space: space immediately around your body, including body  extrapersonal space: space more than 5 feet away from you PERSONAL REPRESENTATIONS OF SPACE  position responses performed in intrapersonal space, require monitoring of space with respect to body position  Acredolo test: participant seated at chair in room with table, window, and door; blindfolded and walked around room; furniture moved without their knowledge; blindfold removed and participant asked to return to original position; test of spatial ability that can rely on knowledge of intrapersonal space EXTRAPERSONAL SPACE  many of basic spatial abilities performed in extrapersonal space; including targeting, spatial orientations, spatial location memory, and navigational tasks including both place and cued responses  most studies of extrapersonal spatial abilities require participant to navigate through environment, often mazes  water maze: circular pool filled with milky water, platform submerged just below water’s surface; no identifying feature within pool or water  must learn spatial relationship between objects in room outside of pool; unlesioned rats do task quickly, rats with hippocampal lesions can’t find platform  people navigating in virtual maze had enhanced activity in right hippocampus; greater activation of right hippocampus associated with better learning of maze  when taxi drivers performing imagined navigation, enhanced activity in right hippocampus; posterior portion of hippocampal formation larger than of control group  longer time as taxi driver, larger hippocampus; reflects brain’s ability to change in response to daily demands that placed on brain; could reflect that only people with large hippocampi stay employed as taxi drivers  dead reckoning: short cuts; ability to use dead reckoning demonstrates place response, indicates good knowledge of spatial configuration of environment  hippocampus essential for learning spatial configuration on environment or creating map of space  visual info in environment not required for development of map  ability for humans to dead reckon controversial; dead reckoning in complex paths may be skill learned over multiple trials  ability to learn how to use relational positions of stars or to use sun as compass appears to rely on hippocampal formation  hippocampus responsible for creation of cognitive maps and for performance of novel complex spatial tasks  caching: hiding food and retrieving it later; hippocampi of birds that cache larger than those that don’t  species who perform complex spatial tasks, like caching, tend to have larger hippocampi; brains of these species appear to be quite plastic, reducing volume of hippocampus when not in use  spatial ability varies across menstrual cycle in women and across seasons in men MODULE 10.2: DISORDERS OF SPATIAL ABILITY  disturbances in intrapersonal space: problems processing space that’s within reach; include disorders of body schema (inability to accurately represent spatial relationships among parts of one’s body)  disturbances in extrapersonal space: difficulty perceiving or processing events or objects outside reach; relatively unimpaired at processing intrapersonal space  brain damage often produces constellations of deficits, some disorders have tendency to appear with certain other disorders DISTURBANCES IN INTRAPERSONAL SPACE MICROMATOGNOSIA AND MACROMATOGNOSIA  in some cases of epilepsy, individuals experience perception that parts of their body much larger or smaller than normal, usually hands and feet; symptoms usually transient , occurring along with seizure activity  macrosomatognosia: individual believes that part of their body much larger than normal; often affects whole body  microsomatognosia: perception of parts of body (or whole body) being smaller than it actually is more common than microsomatognosia; usually applies to single parts of body  can occur in absence of epileptic activity; some migraine sufferers experience conditions as aura symptoms  also associated with schizophrenia, drug-induced psychosis, and sleep disorders  not clear which neural systems responsible, temporal lobes prime candidate  temporal lobe dysfunction associated with epilepsy, schizophrenia, sleep disorders  anatomical projections received by temporal lobe make it prime candidate for subserving one’s body image AUTOPAGNOSIA  autopagnosia: loss of spatial knowledge about one’s own body; can recognize and name body parts but difficulty pointing them out on command  can’t point out body parts on anyone else either  appear to retain knowledge of function of body parts LEFT-RIGHT CONFUSION  women have more difficulty, and slower at tasks, but generally don’t make more errors  subjective reports of problems particularly common among left-handed females  left-right confusion: condition that co-occurs with great variety of other disorders; 2 ways of testing:  series of verbal instructions; can take form of “show me” questions  presenting line drawings of body parts and asking people to judge whether parts form body’s right or left side  damage to left parietal lobe or left frontal lobe leads to deficits on both types of tests FINGER AGNOSIA  more specific manifestation of autopagnosia  finger agnosia: person selectively loses ability to recognize, name, or identify fingers; can’t identify on others’ hands  can also be expressed in regards to toes  often accompanied by left-right confusion  Gerstmann syndrome: constellation of deficits; finger agnosia, left-right confusion, dyscalculia (deficits in calculation), dysgraphia (deficits in writing) ANOSOGNOSIA  anosognosia: individual with hemiparesis or other unilateral neurological disorders denies that disorder exists, both verbally and through their motor behaviour; condition usually temporary (lasting days or hours after appearance)  individual unaware of their hemiplegia, hemianopia, or hemianaesthesia  don’t attempt to behave as if they’re neurologically normal (will pick task easier for them if given choice)  in most cases, person suffers from left hemiparesis (following right hemisphere injury); left hemisphere lesions often lead to severe language disorders, making anosognosia more difficult to detect  appears to follow co-occurrence of 2 lesions: one that causes hemiplegia, hemianaesthesia, or hemianopia; one that causes lack of awareness of deficit (usually in parietal lobe, thalamus and internal capsule can also be involved) DISTURBANCES OF EXTRAPERSONAL SPACE REDUPLICATIVE PARAMNESIA  reduplicative paramnesia for places is example of misidentification syndrome (incorrectly identify and reduplicate persons, places, objects, or events; also called environmental reduplication)  more purely spatial manifestation of disorder in which place in space that’s familiar to individual “duplicated and relocated form one site to another”; delusion can appear in 2 forms:  reduplicated world appears to exist in parallel with present one  previously familiar world displaced from one place to another; individual often displays temporal disorientation  associated lesion locations varied, but right hemisphere (particularly right frontal and limbic regions) often affected  lower brain areas like brainstem and cerebellum also implicated TOPOGRAPHICAL AMNESIA  topographical amnesia: loss of ability to navigate in environments previously familiar and navigable  only few dozen cases reported  can identify landmarks correctly, but fail to recall whether landmark to left, right, front, or back of another recognized landmark  also demonstrate impairments on smaller scale  right hemisphere damage appears to impair one’s ability to navigate damaging some more central brain structures can produce same symptoms  cases of transient topographical amnesia, particularly in epileptics TOPOGRAPHICAL AGNOSIA  topographical agnosia: deficits in identifying features of landmarks with their orienting value, but retain ability to identify classes of similar objects; also called environmental agnosia and landmark agnosia  claim all locations and routes are novel  can often retain ability to give appropriate directions or draw simple maps  medial temporo-occipital lesions found in all patients, though some also had left side lesions  anterograde component of topographical disorders associated with medial occipitotemporal lesions either hemisphere (especially posterior parahippocampal gyrus)  retrograde components often attributable to right medial occipitotemporal lesions CHAPTER 11: ATTENTION AND CONSCIOUSNESS (346-376)  conscious experience of world modulated or gated by attention MODULE 11.1 – STUDYING ATTENTION  James identifies 2 basic features of attention:  selection of sensory info from several simultaneously available inputs  attention can be directed to internal mental processes (selective attention: process allowing selection of inputs, thoughts, or actions while others ignored)  selection of a mental state, allowing either internal or external flow of info  voluntary attention: intentionally shifting attention from one input to another; reflexive attention: shift occurs in response to external event  Helmholtz found that by voluntary kind of intention, even without eye movements, without changes of accommodation, one can concentrate attention on sensation from particular part of PNS while excluding attention from all other parts  cocktail party effect: ability to focus one’s listening attention on single speaker among cacophony of conversations and background noises; found by Cherry  Cherry suggested “spatial hearing” was main mechanism of segregating auditory inputs; recent experimental work indicated it’s not major cue, but can help  anterior temporal lobectomy patients impaired when asked to selectively attend to spatially separated audio channels, but only attended channel on side opposite lesion  auditory selective attention mediated by contralateral anterior temporal lobe  2 major issues that dominate most neuropsychological investigations of attention: how attention shifts from one thing to another, whether attention subserved by mechanism distinct from sensorimotor systems EARLY VERSUS LATE SELECTION  “gate” that blocks out unattended stimulus very early in sensory processing chain  early selection: encoding and perceptual analysis of input need not be complete before it’s selected or rejected from further processing  attention could modulate our perceptions by influencing which sensory events processed at very early points in sensation and perception  James suggested possible mechanism for early selection: accommodation or adjustment of sensory organs  also evidence for covert changes relatively “low” or “early” in sensory systems  appears that inner ear function vulnerable to higher perceptual and attentional processes  in tasks requiring basic detection or identification, performance enhanced when attention focused on relevant dimension  possible that accuracy and reaction time benefits provided by focusing attention appropriately due to attentional influences on post-perceptual processes (ex. categorization or response selection); attention could be exerting effect late in perceptual process  one way of dealing with problem to not use accuracy or traction time measures in experiments  results from experiment on ERP (event-related potential) suggest attention possibly as early in perceptual processing as processing in primary auditory cortex  most studies indicate that changes in ERPs take place at level of extrastriate visual cortex rather than primary visual cortex; attention might operate later in visual system than in auditory system  attention modulates both early and later components of ERP for tactile sensations  late selection: attention operates after sensory info has been perceived, identified, and/or categorized  in Stroop effect, unattended semantic info influences processing of attended info; effect only works when people recognize word even though they’re not supposed to read it  non-attended stimuli have semantic effects; ex. if someone conditioned against city names, when names presented dichotically, conditioned names still produced autonomic responses even when unattended (didn’t notice name)  individuals with contralateral neglect (stimuli in contralesional field ignored or neglected) display evidence of semantic knowledge of info presented in neglected field, yet fail to explicitly attend to these stimuli HOW DOES ATTENTION SHIFT?: VOLUNTARY VERSUS REFLEXIVE ORIENTING  shifts in attention could be overt or covert VOLUNTARY SHIFTS IN ATTENTION  changes that you intentionally initiated, changing focus of your attention from one thing to another REFLEXIVE SHIFTS IN ATTENTION  not result of conscious decision about where to focus; also called involuntary; usually adaptive  people with ADD show more attentional shifts from stimulus to stimulus than typically observed  can be manipulated like voluntary shifts  exogenous cueing: cues presented randomly, participant instructed to ignore them  inhibitory aftereffect (inhibition of return): if valid flash appears far in advance of target, results in cost (increased reaction time); 2 possible causes:  reflexive orienting responses normally very short, on order of 200 of fewer milliseconds; much longer durations could result in life threatening situation  when cues tend not to provide valid info, reluctance to respond to changes on that side, assuming (at first) visual changes detected are not appearance of target  assumes it takes much of 200-300 msec after presentation of cue to recognize it as something other than target and decide not to act on its presentation NEURAL SYSTEMS SUBSERVING ATTENTION  practically every cortical cell (exception of some primary visual and motor areas) can have activity influenced by attention  attention extremely diffusedly represented system; single attentional system could possibly have wide-reaching effects  recordings taken from subcortical sites (ex. pulvinar nucleus of thalamus, superior colliculus, inferior colliculus, and basal ganglia) suggest attention not strictly controlled by cortical structures  Baddeley’s model of working memory suggests that working memory can be thought of as having 3 components:  primary component (central executive) responsible for controlling attention and supervising 2 “slave” subsystems: phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad; separate and responsible for manipulating different types of info  attention controlled by single system (central executive)  when performing task, central executive involved with allocation of attention, strategy selection, and integration of info received from 2 slave systems  most functional imaging studies reported that tasks demanding of central executive result in activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; also result in activation of subcortical structures and more posterior regions of brain, including parietal cortex  model proposed by Posner and Peterson; theory describes only visual attention, but consistent with position that single, anatomically distinct region of brain doesn’t mediate attention; involves 3 visual attentional mechanisms  vigilance system (VS)  posterior attentional system (PAS) functionally distinct from other 2 systems; it’s primarily involved in orienting spatial attention, including object search and inspection of object once it’s found; one of main inputs is dorsal visual pathway; role is ensuring ventral visual pathway activated by objects of interest  includes pulvinar nucleus of thalamus, superior colliculus, secondary visual area, inferior temporal lobe, and posterior parietal lobe; these structures involved in localization and identification of visual stimuli  anterior attentional system (AAS) responsible for both working memory and executive control system that subserves conscious control of attention; components would need to be involved in memory, semantics, and control of motor behaviour  includes cingulate gyrus (involved in response selection during various visual and motor tasks) and frontal cortex; contains many connections to structures with mnemonic functions (ex. hippocampus, amygdala, and medial temporal cortex); control of movements themselves appear to be mediated through premotor cortex  vigilance system (VS) functions to prepare and sustain alertness toward signals that demand high priority; appears to be functionally lateralized; right frontal damage compromises ability to develop and maintain alert state or perform vigilance tasks, similar left hemisphere damage doesn’t produce same behavioural deficits  appears to be selectively dependent on norepinephrine (NE)- containing neurons arising in locus coeruleus MODULE 11.2 – STUDYING CONSCIOUSNESS  lucid dreaming: realizing you’re dreaming and taking control of dream DEFINING CONSCIOUSNESS  “some have claimed that consciousness, like jazz, cannot be defined”
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