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PSYB65H3 (479)
Ted Petit (185)
Chapter 1

Human Brain - Chapter 1.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

Chapter 1: Intro to Neuropsychology The 10% Myth - there is no evidence to suggest that there is any part of our brain that we do not use - experiments done on animals were they could still perform basic functions with 90% of their brain removed was over generalized to humans - William James/Einstein > all quoted saying same type of things What is Neuropsychology? - psychology: is the study of behaviour [describe, explain and predict beh] - neuropsychology: is a specialty within the larger field of psychology o is the study of the relation between beaviour and the activity of the brain [assumes beh > in part the result o the activity in the brain] - clinical neuropsychologist: the branch of neuopsychology concerned with psychological assessment, managemtn, and rehabilitation o neurological disease and injury - experimental neuropsychology: focuses on how human beh arises from brain activity [explaining patterns of impairments in terms of disruptions to the damaged neural components] aka cogn neuropsychology/neuroscience Heart, Mind, Brain: The early History of neuropsychology - why study history > insight into the development of the science and info about what is let to discover AND illustrates the # of times researchers were wrong about brain-beh relationships - Empedocles > the heart is the source of human beh, cardiac hypothesis - Aristotle came to the same conclsoin for diff reasons o heart warm/active so source of thought/sensation [brain > cooled blood] - Hippocrates/Galen > said the brain is responsipble for these functions, cephalocentric/brain hypothesis - many remnants of the of cardiac hypothesis in popular culture > valentines/broken heart - early homonids > began to notice that damage to the brain cold disable or case death - trephination: - Egyptian writings 5000 yrs ago > brains damage symptoms o shows understanding importance of brain in beh and disease states - mind was often seen separate from the brain - brain was not seen as involved in higher order functioning [passive interpreter of signals] Mind-Body Problem - Descrates > reflexive theory of the control of beh > the flow of animals spirits through valvules within nervous tissue filaments o external stimuli > move skin > move filaments > releasing animal spirits and innervating the muscles o accounted for involuntary but not involuntary beh o voluntary beh > interface of the mechanistic body with a rational, decision making soul o said this was in the pineal gland [due to its unitary nature] o cerebrospinal fluid: clear fluid that supports/cleanes the brain  was seen as reservoirs necessary for the animal spirits o pineal movement> release of animal spirits = voluntary movement o Descrates theory relied heavily on hydraulics that was the modern tech of the time > many other theories of brain function also relied on technological metaphors o switchboard [on/off while learning]/computer technology [encoding and storing of info]/supercomputers [networks] o *issue with these is their inability to account for the variability in beh - dualism: referring to the mind and body and two separate entities - monoism: posits that the mind and body are unitary o ‘there is no ghost in the machine’ Recent History of Neuropsychology - 1990 > decade of the brain [most learned about the brain since] - field is young, draws form anthro, bio, physio, and neurology Cataloging the Effects of Lesions - Jean-Cesar Legallois, Charles Bell, Francois Magendie - Legallois discovered that lesioning, destroying tissue, the medulla resulted in the immediate cessation of breathing [respiratory center localized] - Bell/Magendie > studied nerves tht exited the spinal cord o dorsal roots [leave the back of cord] > sensory functions o ventral roots [leave the front]> motor functions - Bell > the brain should be investigated for functional/anatomical segregation - Gall > suggested that the cortex is functionally localized o 27 distinct cogn abilities > faculties [nonhumanbs animals only 19] o believed increase size of an area = increased function o cranioscopy o phrenology: measurements of the skull and pronouncements on personality [early 19 centurty] - Marie-Jean Flourens > critic of phrenology o said it was subjective and performed post hoc o firm believer of empirical method, performed lesioning techniques o cerebellum > coordinated movement o medulla > vitla functions for the organism o noticed after lesions function could be restored o euipotentiality > proposed the cortex functioned as a whole and that there was no functional specialization within the cortex - Goltz > only the size of a lesion not the area effected the beh > therefore the cortex could not be specialized for specific cognitive functions - David Ferreir > said results of the lesion experiments were consistent with the localization of sensory and motor functions within discrete portions of the cortex - Fritsch/Hitzig > frontal cortex essential for normal movement in dogs o lesion > that led to abnormal motor movements but intact sensation o overturned cortical equipotentiality - Paul Broca [anthropologist] o first higher cognitive function localized > language o frontal cortex > speech production o 1861, ‘Tan’ > circumscrived lesion of the left frontal lobe [Broca’s area] > incapable of productive speech o aphemia/Broca’s aphasia > loss of capacity for speech but retained the ability to understand language o did not study prosody, the emotional tone of speech and the loss of comprehension of language associated with the preservation of speech - Jackson > content and emotional tone of speech > separable o speech involves linguistic/complex motor skills o disassociation btwn semantic content of language and the emotional tone - Carl Wernicke o auditory center in the temporal lobes [Wernicke’s Area] o Wernicke’s aphasia > produce speech but would be incapable of using words correctly and be unable to understand the speech of others o total/global aphasia > inability to produce/understand language > from lesions of both Wernicke’s and Broca’s areas Focus on the Neurons - working unit of the brain > neuron Anatomical Studies - 3 hurdles to study the constituents of the brain > size of the cells, texture of the brain, and the lack of pigmentation in much of the brain - cells > 0.01-0.05 millimeters in diameter - we can only see 2 points if they are separated by 0.01 millimeter - 1800s > compound microscope > see animal tissue at high levels of magnify - Theodore Schwann > all living tissue was composed of microscopic units called cells [the cell doctrine] - to study neurons > thins slices of the brain > brain must be hardened before can be sliced > formaldehyde > stained to make cells visible - histology > the study of thinly sli
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