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Chapter 12

PSYB65 - chapter 12.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB65H3
Professor
Ted Petit
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 12: Humans, Human Brains, and Evolution Evolution of Humans - 1859, Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species and fundamentally changed our understanding of biology, where all living things are subject to selection - Evolutionary psychology: attempts to apply the principles of adaptation and selection to human behaviour Evolutionary Theory - The discovery of evolutionary theory is generally credited to both Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace. The development of this theory was made independently by these two researchers, both of whom were naturalists with interests in geology.  Commonalities among related species  Earth was far older than previously thought, and the forces that were active in shaping the earth as we know it are still active and will continue to produce changes in the future  Food supplies affect populations, to what would become the staple of evolutionary theory (survival of the fittest) - Historical Theory of Evolution: variation, inheritance, and differential reproduction  Natural selection (Darwin): requires that all individuals are unique and that characteristics that give an animal a reproductive advantage will result in the magnification of these traits in the population  Adaptation: when a trait results in a reproductive advantage and is selected for  Sexual selection: it is competition among individuals for reproduction that determines a gene’s fate o Intersexual selection o Intrasexual selection - Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution/ Modern Synthesis: combines information from such diverse areas as molecular biology and paleontology. It is based on what is known about genes, DNA, chromosomes, and population biology.  Certain environments select certain phenotypes, and phenotypes are an expression of the genotype interacting with the environment  Although genes occur at the level of the individual, evolutionary change occurs at the level of populations (natural selection, random genetic drift, and gene flow)  Species represent different gene pools, rather than fundamentally unique groups Evolution of the N
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