Textbook Notes (363,006)
Canada (158,140)
Psychology (9,565)
PSYB65H3 (479)
Ted Petit (185)
Chapter 14

PSYB65 - chapter 14.docx

3 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

Chapter 14: Human Brain Damage Causes of Brain Damage Tumors - Tumor (“neoplasms/new tissue”): a mass of new and abnormal tissue that is not physiologically beneficial to its surrounding structures - Space-occupying lesions: they are foreign objects that cause damage to the CNS by putting pressureon it and occupying space that is normally occupied by the CNS - Benign tumors not likely to recur, malignant ones are more likely to recur - 4 major types of brain tumors:  Tumors arising from glial cells: gliomas are tumors that arise from glial cells o Astrocytomas: tumors arise from growth of Astrocytes (grow slowly and are benign – often compress surrounding tissues o Glioblastoma: grow quickly and highly malignant, infiltrating the surrounding tissues o Medulloblastoma: another highly malignant infiltrating tumor, and tend to form around the cerebellum and brainstem early in life  Tumors arising from the meninges: meningiomas are tumors that grow out of, and remain attached to, the meninges (usually growing out of the dura mater) o Harmful effects tend to result from pressure applied at the site of the tumor, as well as sites distal from the tumor  Metastatic Tumors : secondary tumors that form from migrated tumor tissue(common for the original tumor to be located outside of the CNS)  Neuropsychological effects of tumors: the behavioural symptoms that arise from the formation of a tumor vary widely Cerebrovascular Disorders - Cerebrovascular Disorders (stroke): occurs when the blood supply to the brain is interrupted, which can be sudden or gradual, complete or relative, permanent or temporary - Cerebrovascular accident (CVA): refers to a class of Cerebrovascular disorders, all of which result in interruptions to the brain’s blood supply - Cerebral ischemia: a lack of blood supply to the brain - Infarct: damaged area occurs if the cerebral ischemia is severe or long-lasting enough to kill neurons - Thrombosis: if a blood clot forms within a cerebral blood vessel (if formed in the heart, it can cause a heart attack) – cerebral thrombosis appear gradually - Atherosclerosis: most common cause of thrombosis, and is the fatty deposits build up inside the walls of blood vessels, constricting the vessel more and more and possibly even completely blocking it - Embolism: similar in form to a thrombosis, both involve the blocking of an artery by the build-up of a substance. However, an embolism is normally a clot/air bubble/piece of fat that travels in the bloodstream from one part of the body to another – blood flow is obstructed suddenly and can be extremely dangerous if not relieved immediately (use of anticoagulant drugs) - Hemorrhage: the bursting of a blood vessel causing an interruption in blood supply to the brain  Intracerebral hemorrhage: when the hemorrhage occurs within the brain  Subarachnoid hemorrhage: bleeding into the subarachnoid space (between the pia mater and arachnoid layer of the meninges) - Aneurysm: artery can be malformed, having a weak spot - Hypertension: another common cause of haemorrhages include abnormally high blood pressure - Some CVAs are caused by physical defects in the cerebral vasculature, some of which might be present at birth, and are called congenital defects.  Arteriovenus malformation (AVM): malformed arteries and vessels that have extra or missing connections, resulting in abnormal blood flow  Aneurysm: an area of the artery that dilates because of local weakness, resulting in a balloon-like expansion (if an aneurism suddenly bursts, resulting in a intracranial hemorrhage, the rupture is often fatal) Head Injuries - Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): the leading cause of closed head injury, and is an acquired brain injury and does not include damage that was acquired due to congenital disorders, degenerative disorders, or birth trauma  In TBI, not all brain damage occurs as a result of the initial accident, ischemia accounts for 88% of further brain damage  Common impairments associated with TBI include difficulties with executive skills, short-term memory, and concentration - Closed-Head Injuries: an individual receives a blow to the head but the blow does not penetrate the skull and meninges  Coup: point of impact  Contre-coup injury: opposite side of impact (brain shifts due to it floating in CSF)  Fossae: shearing of the brain as it rubs against bony protrusions from the skull - Open-Head (Penetrating) Injuries: when an object breaches the skill and meninges  The fact that open headed injuries are worse than closed head injuries is not n
More Less

Related notes for PSYB65H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.