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Canada (158,032)
Psychology (9,545)
PSYB65H3 (479)
Ted Petit (185)
Chapter 13

PSYB65 Chapter 13 Detailed chapter notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

Chapter 13 Neural Development and Developmental DisordersModule 131 Neural DevelopmentPostnatal DevelopmentExtensive growth in cortical areas of the brainPlastic changethe ability of the CNS to alter itself in response to the environmental stimuliCritical periods of plastic changeperiods in which the environment can have a maximal effect on the CNSOccurs in response to specific experiences experience expectantexperiencedependent plasticity phenomena Experienceexpectant plastic changesCNS changes that are dependent on experiences during critical period for specific synapses to develop as they shouldExperiencedependent plastic changesidiosyncratic experiences that occur during critical periods that also affect brain developmentEg Musical training in childhood can have longlasting changes on size of auditory cortex in adulthood Parietal Lobe DevelopmentHas inconsistent levels of development at birthsome parts of the parietal lobe are more mature than others Associated with visual perception and spatial abilitytakes longer to develop Babies who are 23 months of age exhibit large increases in glucose utilization in parietal lobesincreases remain steady until 23 years of age Presumed corresponds to improvement in visuospatial and visuosensorimotor skill Basic tactile sensations mature early complex tactile discriminations require more time to developComponent of the dorsal visual stream the where and how pathwayprocessing of spatial information and directing behaviours toward certain points in space Williams Syndrome genetic condition in which some of chromosome 7 has been deletedrelatively spares verbal activity but has significant difficulties with visuospatial ability smaller brain volumes that is not uniform throughout CNS relatively spares frontal lobe and temporal lobes and disproportionate reductions in parietal and occipital lobes significant reductions in white matterOccipital Lobe DevelopmentDevelopment is incomplete at birthNewborns do not have an underdeveloped visual systemsare capable of distinguishing between twodimensional and threedimensional stimuli Have rudimentary form perception Becomes very competent with more complex stimuli such as faces very quicklyCompetence with visual stimuli may depend on the myelination of the optic tract and requires the optic radiations to become functionally connected with the sensory organs and with other areas of the brainAt birthmyelination of the optic tract is moderate optic radiations exhibit minimal amount of myelination 3 months of ageheavy myelination to optic tract and optic radiations 6 weeks of ageinfants begin to experience binocular vision Development of the visual cortex is critically dependent on the environmental experiences of the 1
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