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PSYB65H3 (479)
Chapter 11


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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

PSYB65-CHAPTER 11 Studying Attention: Selective Attention—the process that allows the selection of inputs, thoughts, or actions while ignoring other ones Voluntary Attention—individual intentionally shifts attention from one input to another Reflexive Attention—attention shifts occurring in response to some external event (random loud noise) Early Selection: -Encoding and Perceptual analysis of an input does not have to be complete before it’s selected or rejected from further processing. (If selection is this early, attention modulates perceptions by influencing sensory organs that are processing current stimuli James (1890)—the accommodation or adjustment of sensory organs -Observed that some animals shift sensory organs when they shift their attentions. (Dog’s shift their ears) Late Selection: -Attention operates after the sensory information has been perceived, identified, or categorized. Stroop Effect—people are slow to name the colour of a word that is a color; can only happen if word is recognized semantically. (They have to focus on retrieving the right information after the sensory information has been sent) -Shows that unattended stimuli can have semantic effects **Both methods of selection could be right, but it that there are more than one mechanism that operates at an early level and one for a late level Reflexive Shifts in Attention: -Shift in attention not due to a conscious result -Usually adaptive—when a potentially threating event happens, failure to respond quickly could mean death -ADD-examples of negative effects on excessive Reflexive Attention—these people exhibit more attention shifts from stimulus to stimulus than is typically observed, results in abnormal behaviour -Can be manipulated Neural Systems Helping Attention: Baddley—came up with a model of the working memory -Working memory can have three components: 1. Central Executive: Responsible for controlling attention and supervising the two slave systems 2.Phonological Loop: Language related parts of attention 3.Visuospatial SketchPad: Visual and Spatial parts of language and attention and their effect on memory PSYB65-CHAPTER 11 Posner and Peterson—model of attention which focuses on three visual attention mechanisms, these attentional systems are functionally and anatomically distinct: 1. Posterior Attentioanal System—Primarily involved in orienting spatial attention (Object search and inspection) -Main Input—Doral Visual Pathway; activates Pulvinar Nucleus of Thalamus, **Superior Colliculus, Seconday visual areas, inferior temple, and posterior parietal. 2. Anterior Attentional System—Responsible for working memory and exectutive control system that helps with conscious control **Cingulate gyrus, frontal cortex and has connections related to the hippocampus, amygdala, medial temporal cortex (mnemonic functions) 3. Vigilance System—prepares and sustains alertness towards signals that deman high priority -Functionally lateralized. -Dependent on Norepinephrine-containing neurons in the locus coeruleus Consiousness: Biasch—proposed that there were three different senses of consciousness 1.Nonphysical Entities—soul or immaterial mind 2. Experience of sensation, thought, or action 3. Monitoring of internal representations Neidermeyer—the same components of consciousness, including selective attentiveness, chenges the mental states and vigilance Damasio—two kinds of consciousness exist 1. Core Consciousness—th
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