Textbook Notes (363,507)
Canada (158,391)
Psychology (9,573)
PSYB65H3 (479)
Ted Petit (185)
Chapter 13

PSYB65-Chapter 13 Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

Chapter 13 Early Development N 3 weeks: o Neural plate forms from the ectoderm of the embryo o Neural plate: patch of cells that are on the dorsal surface of the embryo (eventually becoming the nervous system) o Ectoderm: the outermost of 3 layers of cells in the early embryo (will form the nervous system and skin) o In the neural plate are stem cells Will develop into various types of nervous system cells (pluripotent) N Day 24 o Neural plate turns into a grove then become a neural tube o Different sections of the tube become various parts of the nervous system Interior surface of tube=ventricles and central canal N Proliferation Jcell division resulting in new neurons N Day 40 o 3 prominent bumps: forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain N Cells migrate from the interior ventricular zone to their final lndation by following certain types of glia N 2 month o Telencephalon undergoes tremendous growth N The deepest layer of neurons develop first N Cell differentiation begins as the neurons form axons and dendrites and is complete at birth N Craniorachischisis o Defect of the neural tube o Results when there is a complete failure of the closure of the neural tube o Appears as a groove in top of head and body o Rare, usually partial closure of the neural tube appears This results in www.notesolution.com N spina bifida o spinal cord defect, not fatal but can be severe N anencephaly o fatal failure of rostral part of neural plate to fuse o characterized by an absence of cerebral hemispheres N synaptogenesis o production of new synapses o shortly before birth-2 years old, synapse formation begins rapid growth reaches its maximal rate during puberty 50% more neurons are produced than needed N As a result, cell death is normal and actually programmed o Apoptosis-programmed cell death o ^LZZZ}L[KlL ]}Lo }LL ]}L} incorrect also die N dendritic branching o become more complex with time Postnatal Development N Plastic change: o Ability of the CNS to alter itself in response to environmental stimuli o During critical periods, plastic change occurs very easily and the environment has maximum effect on the central nervous system. Occurs from specific experiences. Experience-expectant plastic changes N CNS changes that are dependent on experience N Most of the sensory cortex has experience- expectant critical periods www.notesolution.com
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