The development of neuropsychology
- L.D hit his head when drunk and was unable to multitask, taste, and smell. He
was easily agitated and ended his 4 year relationship with his gf. He went
back to golf which he was able to do well. Poor scores of attention and
- Neuropsychology: the study of relation between behaviour and brain
- Brain hypothesis: the brain is the cource of behaviour
- Neuron hypothesis: the idea that the unit of brai structure and function is
- Neuron:nerve cell.
The Brain Hypothesis:
What is the brain
- brain: old English word for tissue found within the skull (figure 1.1).
- Hemispheres: almost symmetrical halves of the brain. If you make your right
hand into a fist it will resemble the left hemisphere.
- Cerebrospinal fluid: the basic plan of the brain is a tube filled with this salty
fluid. It cushions the brain and may play a role in remiving metabolic waste.
It has bulges outwards and inwards.
- Cerebral cortex: outer feature of the brain that consists of crinkled tissue
expanding from the front of the tube to the rest of the brain. (cortex in latin
- Gyri: folds of the cortex.
- Sulci: the creases between the gyri. (in latin it is trench). Some large are
- Longitudinal fissure: divides the two hemispheres
- Lateral fissure: divides each hemisphere into halves.
- The cortex of each hem. Is divided into four lobes:
1) temporal lobe (located at the bottom front) (thumb)
2) above the temporal is the frontal lobe (located at the front of the brain)
3) Behind the frontal is the parietal lobe (knuckles)
4) Occipital lobe: the back of each hemisphere (wrist)
- the brains hemispheres are connercted by pathways called commissures.
- Corpus callosum: the largest commissures
- Forebrain: the cerebral cortex makes up most of the forebrain.
- The brainstem: the remaining tube underlying the cortex. Connected to the
spinal cord (arm).
- Evolutionarily: animals with just spinal cords preceded those that developed
brain stems, which preceded those with forebrains.
- Automically: in prenatal development: the spinal cord forms before the brain
stem and the brainstem before the forebrain. - Functionally: the forebrain mediates cognitive functions, brainstem mediated
regulatory functions (eating, drinking, moving) and spinal cord is responsible
for sending command to the muscles.
How Is The Brain Related To The Rest OF The Nervous System
- brain and spinal cord are protected by bones and vertebrae protect the
- Central nervous system: brain and the spinal cord together. Connected to the
rest of the body through nerve fibres. After damage it does not regenerate
- Peripheral Nervous system: the fibres that consistute the connection
between the body and central nervous system. They will regenerate after
- Nerve fibres that bring info to the CNS are extensively connected to the
sensory receptors on the bodies surface.
- Sensory pathways: collection of fibres carry messages from sensory systems
(hearing, visions, and touch) usually from one side of the body to the other
side of the hemisphere by means of subdivision of the PNS called the
Somatic nervous system.
- Somatic nervous system: uses info to construct its current images of the
world, memories of past events and expectations of the future. (BODY)
- Motor pathways: groups of nerve fibres that connect the brain and the spinal
cord to the bodies muscles through the SNS.
- Includes: eye movement, hand movement, posture, etc.
- One hemisphere uses muscles on the opposite side of the body to produce
- Sensory and motor pathways also influnec the muscles of your internal
organs (e.g. beating of your heart, contrcations of stomach, and raising and
lowering of your diaphragm). The pathways that control these are a
subdivision of the PNS called Autonomic nervous system (ANS).
- (figure 1.2).
The Brain Vs. The Heart
located mental processes in the brain and subscribed to the brain
located them in the heart and so subscribed to the cardiac hypothesis.
- Galen refuted the cardiac hypothesis. He stated that brain damage affects
function and nerves from the sense organs go to the brain and not the heart.
Pressure on the brain caused cessation of movement, and even death.
Pressure on the heart caused pain but does not stop voluntary behaviour.
- In literature and everyday speech it is associated with the heart, but we do
now accept now the brain hypothesis Aristotle: the Mind
- First person to develop a formal theory about behaviour.
- Non material psyche was responsible for human thoughts, perceptions, and
- The psyche was said to be independent from the body but worked through
the heart. This came from the Christian view of the soul.
- Mentalism: persons mind is responsible for theur behaviour (philosophical
position). It was said that the brain was non material and has no parts it was
said to work as a whole.
Descartes : The Mind-Body Problem
- the body is like these machines, ut is material and it responds mechanically
and reflexively to what impinges on it.
- The mind was different from the body
- The mind decided what movement the body should make. He located the site
of action the pineal body (small structure high in the brain stem: the only
unit that is not composed of two symmetrical sides and is located close to the
ventricles. The mind worjubf through the pneal body controlled the valves
that allowed the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) t flow through the ventricles,
through the nerves, to muscles, filling them and making them move.
- He thought that the brain was just a covering for the pineal.
- What was then discovered was that when the pineal gland was damaged
there was no observable difference in behaviour.
- Pineal Gland: is thought now of days to be assoaciated with biorhythms.
- (figure 1.3).
- Dualism: mind and body interacting. Violates laws of physics.
- Mind body problem: a person is capable of being conscious and rational
only because of having a mind, but how can a non material mind produce
movements In a material body.
- Some dualists avoid this by saying that they work parallel to one another or
that the body can affect the mind but the mind cant affect the body.
- Monists: the mind and body are a unitary whole (avoids the mind body
- Animals do not have minds, children developed a mind at age 7 (when able to
talk and reason) and the mentally ill all had no minds. The abuse of these
were said to be okay due to this view.
- He said whether animals has a mind or not could not be figured out
Darwin and Materialism
- modern perspective of materialism: rational behaviour can e fully explained
by the working of the nervous system without any need to refer to a
nonmaterial mind. Had roots from evolutionary perspectives by Wallace and
- Darwin and Wallace: there were a lot of common characteristics between
plants and animals. - Darwin: a;; organisms bothing living and extinct are descended from some
unknown ancestor that lived in the past. (all organisms are to have a
- The nervous system was adapted only once animals came about.
Experimental Approaches to Brain Function
Localization of Function
- first theory to present idea of different parts of the brain is by Gall and
spurzheim. They proposed that the cortex and gyri were functioning parts of
the brain not just coverings of the pineal body. They showed this through
dissection of the (corticospinal tract) cortex to the spinal cord. They
suggested that the cortex send info to the spinal cord to command
movement. They proposed that it produced behaviour and discovered that
the brain hem. Were connected by the corpus callosum.
- He proposed The localization of function: gall said that the well developed
memory area of the cortex located behind the eyes would cause the eyes to
- A bump on the skull was due to a well developed cotical gyrus of the brain. A
depression indicates and underdeveloped.
- They assigned many traits to indents or bulges in the skull. (figure 1.4)
- Phrenology: mapping of areas associated with different characteristics. They
dealt with a patient with brain damage which supported their map.
- Some individuals created a cranioscopy (measurement tool placed around
the skull. It measures the depressions and bulges and compared it to the
- The outer skull doesn’t even mirror the structure of the brain.
- The remnents of phrenology was the naming of the lobes based on the skull
above that area.
Localization and Lateralization of Language
- in 1825 Bouillaud said that the statements made by galls theory were
correct: that certain functions are localized in the cotex and that speech is
localized in the frontal lobes and that the brain dealt with the opposite side of
- Broca: speech in the 3 convolution. On the left side of the frontal lobe.
- Broca demonstrated that language was laclized, and that different regions of
the cortex could have specialized function and lateralization.
- Lateralization: functions could be localized to a side of the brain.
- Since speech is thought to ve cetral to human consciousness, the left hem. Is
referred to the dominant side.
- Brocas area: the anterior speech region of the brain. The syndrome
associated with dmage to this area is Brocas Aphasia. - He studied tan and lelong. Pierre Marie criticized his analysis of these
patients. There was also posterior damage which he never mentioned, and
the 3 left frontal convolution plays no function in lang