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Chapter 1

Chapter 1.docx fundamentals of human NP

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Zachariah Campbell

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Chapter 1 The development of neuropsychology - L.D hit his head when drunk and was unable to multitask, taste, and smell. He was easily agitated and ended his 4 year relationship with his gf. He went back to golf which he was able to do well. Poor scores of attention and memory. - Neuropsychology: the study of relation between behaviour and brain function. - Brain hypothesis: the brain is the cource of behaviour - Neuron hypothesis: the idea that the unit of brai structure and function is the neuron - Neuron:nerve cell. The Brain Hypothesis:  What is the brain - brain: old English word for tissue found within the skull (figure 1.1). - Hemispheres: almost symmetrical halves of the brain. If you make your right hand into a fist it will resemble the left hemisphere. - Cerebrospinal fluid: the basic plan of the brain is a tube filled with this salty fluid. It cushions the brain and may play a role in remiving metabolic waste. It has bulges outwards and inwards. - Cerebral cortex: outer feature of the brain that consists of crinkled tissue expanding from the front of the tube to the rest of the brain. (cortex in latin means bark). - Gyri: folds of the cortex. - Sulci: the creases between the gyri. (in latin it is trench). Some large are called fissures. - Longitudinal fissure: divides the two hemispheres - Lateral fissure: divides each hemisphere into halves. - The cortex of each hem. Is divided into four lobes: 1) temporal lobe (located at the bottom front) (thumb) 2) above the temporal is the frontal lobe (located at the front of the brain) (fingers) 3) Behind the frontal is the parietal lobe (knuckles) 4) Occipital lobe: the back of each hemisphere (wrist) - the brains hemispheres are connercted by pathways called commissures. - Corpus callosum: the largest commissures - Forebrain: the cerebral cortex makes up most of the forebrain. - The brainstem: the remaining tube underlying the cortex. Connected to the spinal cord (arm). - Evolutionarily: animals with just spinal cords preceded those that developed brain stems, which preceded those with forebrains. - Automically: in prenatal development: the spinal cord forms before the brain stem and the brainstem before the forebrain. - Functionally: the forebrain mediates cognitive functions, brainstem mediated regulatory functions (eating, drinking, moving) and spinal cord is responsible for sending command to the muscles. How Is The Brain Related To The Rest OF The Nervous System - brain and spinal cord are protected by bones and vertebrae protect the spinal cord. - Central nervous system: brain and the spinal cord together. Connected to the rest of the body through nerve fibres. After damage it does not regenerate lost tissues. - Peripheral Nervous system: the fibres that consistute the connection between the body and central nervous system. They will regenerate after damage. - Nerve fibres that bring info to the CNS are extensively connected to the sensory receptors on the bodies surface. - Sensory pathways: collection of fibres carry messages from sensory systems (hearing, visions, and touch) usually from one side of the body to the other side of the hemisphere by means of subdivision of the PNS called the Somatic nervous system. - Somatic nervous system: uses info to construct its current images of the world, memories of past events and expectations of the future. (BODY) - Motor pathways: groups of nerve fibres that connect the brain and the spinal cord to the bodies muscles through the SNS. - Includes: eye movement, hand movement, posture, etc. - One hemisphere uses muscles on the opposite side of the body to produce movement. - Sensory and motor pathways also influnec the muscles of your internal organs (e.g. beating of your heart, contrcations of stomach, and raising and lowering of your diaphragm). The pathways that control these are a subdivision of the PNS called Autonomic nervous system (ANS). - (figure 1.2). The Brain Vs. The Heart - Alcmaeon  located mental processes in the brain and subscribed to the brain hypothesis - Empedocles  located them in the heart and so subscribed to the cardiac hypothesis. - Galen refuted the cardiac hypothesis. He stated that brain damage affects function and nerves from the sense organs go to the brain and not the heart. Pressure on the brain caused cessation of movement, and even death. Pressure on the heart caused pain but does not stop voluntary behaviour. - In literature and everyday speech it is associated with the heart, but we do now accept now the brain hypothesis Aristotle: the Mind - First person to develop a formal theory about behaviour. - Non material psyche was responsible for human thoughts, perceptions, and emotions. - The psyche was said to be independent from the body but worked through the heart. This came from the Christian view of the soul. - Mentalism: persons mind is responsible for theur behaviour (philosophical position). It was said that the brain was non material and has no parts it was said to work as a whole. Descartes : The Mind-Body Problem - the body is like these machines, ut is material and it responds mechanically and reflexively to what impinges on it. - The mind was different from the body - The mind decided what movement the body should make. He located the site of action the pineal body (small structure high in the brain stem: the only unit that is not composed of two symmetrical sides and is located close to the ventricles. The mind worjubf through the pneal body controlled the valves that allowed the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) t flow through the ventricles, through the nerves, to muscles, filling them and making them move. - He thought that the brain was just a covering for the pineal. - What was then discovered was that when the pineal gland was damaged there was no observable difference in behaviour. - Pineal Gland: is thought now of days to be assoaciated with biorhythms. - (figure 1.3). - Dualism: mind and body interacting. Violates laws of physics. - Mind body problem: a person is capable of being conscious and rational only because of having a mind, but how can a non material mind produce movements In a material body. - Some dualists avoid this by saying that they work parallel to one another or that the body can affect the mind but the mind cant affect the body. - Monists: the mind and body are a unitary whole (avoids the mind body problem). - Animals do not have minds, children developed a mind at age 7 (when able to talk and reason) and the mentally ill all had no minds. The abuse of these were said to be okay due to this view. - He said whether animals has a mind or not could not be figured out experimentally. Darwin and Materialism - modern perspective of materialism: rational behaviour can e fully explained by the working of the nervous system without any need to refer to a nonmaterial mind. Had roots from evolutionary perspectives by Wallace and Darwin. - Darwin and Wallace: there were a lot of common characteristics between plants and animals. - Darwin: a;; organisms bothing living and extinct are descended from some unknown ancestor that lived in the past. (all organisms are to have a common descent). - The nervous system was adapted only once animals came about. Experimental Approaches to Brain Function Localization of Function - first theory to present idea of different parts of the brain is by Gall and spurzheim. They proposed that the cortex and gyri were functioning parts of the brain not just coverings of the pineal body. They showed this through dissection of the (corticospinal tract) cortex to the spinal cord. They suggested that the cortex send info to the spinal cord to command movement. They proposed that it produced behaviour and discovered that the brain hem. Were connected by the corpus callosum. - He proposed The localization of function: gall said that the well developed memory area of the cortex located behind the eyes would cause the eyes to protrude. - A bump on the skull was due to a well developed cotical gyrus of the brain. A depression indicates and underdeveloped. - They assigned many traits to indents or bulges in the skull. (figure 1.4) - Phrenology: mapping of areas associated with different characteristics. They dealt with a patient with brain damage which supported their map. (figure1.5) - Some individuals created a cranioscopy (measurement tool placed around the skull. It measures the depressions and bulges and compared it to the map. - The outer skull doesn’t even mirror the structure of the brain. - The remnents of phrenology was the naming of the lobes based on the skull above that area. Localization and Lateralization of Language - in 1825 Bouillaud said that the statements made by galls theory were correct: that certain functions are localized in the cotex and that speech is localized in the frontal lobes and that the brain dealt with the opposite side of the body. - Broca: speech in the 3 convolution. On the left side of the frontal lobe. (figure 1.6). - Broca demonstrated that language was laclized, and that different regions of the cortex could have specialized function and lateralization. - Lateralization: functions could be localized to a side of the brain. - Since speech is thought to ve cetral to human consciousness, the left hem. Is referred to the dominant side. - Brocas area: the anterior speech region of the brain. The syndrome associated with dmage to this area is Brocas Aphasia. - He studied tan and lelong. Pierre Marie criticized his analysis of these patients. There was also posterior damage which he never mentioned, and the 3 left frontal convolution plays no function in lang
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