Textbook Notes (368,089)
Canada (161,636)
Psychology (9,695)
PSYB65H3 (479)
Ted Petit (185)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Notes

5 Pages
101 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB65H3
Professor
Ted Petit
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 1 – Textbook notes Introduction to Neuropsychology ➢ What is Neuropsychology?  Psychology is the study of behaviour  Neuropsychology is the study of the relation between brain activity and the behaviour  2 branches  Clinical Neuropsychology: Concerned with psychological assessment, management, rehabillitation of neurological disease & injury.  Experimental Neuropsychology: Explains how human behaviour arises from brain activity – attributing impairments to brain damage. ➢ Heart, Mind, and Brain: The Early History of Neuropsychology  Early Theories  a) Cardiac/Cardiocentric Hypothesis • Empedocles – “4 elements dude” - philosopher who believed heart was the source of human behaviour • Aristotle – heart is active & warm & therefore a source of thought & sensation; brain is a radiator that cools the blood  b) Brain/Cephalocentric Hypothesis • Hippocrates • Galen • Both were incorrect about specific details but shared a correct view – importance of the brain in behaviour ➢ The Mind-Body Problem  What's the relationship between inner mental life and body?  Rene Descartes  Reflexive behaviours are a result of animal spirits flowing through valvules – This did not account for voluntary behaviour though  He believed that voluntary action is the result of the interaction btwn body and mind in the pineal gland.  Why pineal gland? - Only structure in the brain that's unitary and is also surrounded by CBS (apparently, the reservoire for animal spirits)  Therefore, stimulation produces small movements of pineal gland = release animal spirits = movement of the body • *His theories relied heavily on hydraulics  Current analogies of the brain resemble current technologies  1 problem – computer analogy fails to account for variability in behaviour  Opposing view to mind-body view = monism  Monism = min and body are unitary The Recent History of Neuropsychology ➢ Cataloguing the Effects of Lesions  Legallois  Physiologist who discovered that lesioning (destroying tissue in) the medulla resulted in the cessation of breathing st  So respiratory center within medulla was the 1 to be widely accepted as a localized function in the brain  Bell & Magendie  Studied the nerves that exited the spinal cord  Discovered functional segregation • Dorsal roots – sensory functions • Ventral roots – motor functions  Franz Joseph Gall  Suggested that the cortex was functionally localized  27 distinct cognitive abilities (faculties) that could be localized on the cortex of the human brain  Increased size of an area = increased function in that realm  Measurements of the skull and pronouncements of personality became known as phrenology.  Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens  French anatomist & firm believer in the empirical method  Criticized phrenology – too subjective and that all the analyses were performed post hoc  Contributions • Observations that the cerebellum was responsible for coordinated movement and that the medulla performed vital functions • Observed that sometimes function can be restored after lesion • Opposed to the localization of cognitive function – emphasized equipontentiality (that cortex functions as a whole and that specific parts do not perform specific functions) • Fritsch & Hitzig later disproved theory of equipontentiality = distinct parts of the cortex carry out distinct functions.  Paul Broca  First to localize a higher cognitive function – language  First to gain widespread acceptance for the role of the frontal cortex in the production of speech.  Left frontal lobe lesion – Broca's aphasia = incapable of productive speech  But didn't look at emotional tone of speech and loss of comprehension.  John Hughlings – Jackson  Observation that speech is a complex process that involves linguistic ability as well as complex motor skills  Could also be dissociations between the semantic content of language  Carl Wernicke  Wernicke's aphasia – temporal lobe damage – incapable of using words correctly & understanding speech ➢ Focus on the Neuron  Anatomical Studies  3 main hurdles had to be overcome to study the brain – size of the cells, texture of the brain, and lack of pigmentation in much of the brain  Neurons are 0.02 millimeter in diameter  Histology • The study of thingly, fixed, & stained tissues – still a very powerful technique to study the brain • Steps • 1) Produce thin slices of brain – (thicker than the neurons themselves) – using microtome. • 2) Harden brain – (not solid) – soak in formald
More Less

Related notes for PSYB65H3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit