Textbook Notes (363,090)
Canada (158,185)
Psychology (9,565)
PSYB65H3 (479)
Ted Petit (185)
Chapter 1

PSYB65 Chapter 1.docx

4 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

Chapter 1: Introduction to Neuropsychology Introduction to Neuropsychology The 10% Myth • No evidence that there is any part of your brain that you do not use o Mythical claim that brain has unknown origins What is Neuropsychology • Describe, explain, predict, and change behaviour • Study of the relation between behaviour and the activity of the brain • Clinical neuropsychology – concerned with psychological assessment, management, and rehabilitation of neurological disease and injury • Experimental neuropsychology – how human behaviour arises from brain activity o Includes explaining how patterns of behavioural impairments can be explained in terms of disruptions to the damaged neural components o Also referred to as cognitive neuropsychology or cognitive neuroscience Heart, Mind, and Brain: The Early History of Neuropsychology • Provides important insights into the development of the science and gives us information about what is left to discover • Illustrates instances in which researchers were wrong about the nature of brain-behaviour relationships • Empedocles o Cardiac or cardio-centric hypothesis  All matter was composed of four elements: fire, air, water, and earth  Heart was source of human behaviour • Aristotle o Heart was source of thought and sensation o Brain cooled the blood • Hippocrates & Galen o Cephalocentric hypothesis or the brain hypothesis  Brain is responsible for human behaviour • Finger o Observations of fossilized skull fractures in early hominids  Recognition that damaging the brain would result in death  Survive when skull was cut open • Trephination The Mind-Body Problem • Descartes o Voluntary behaviours depended on the interface of the mechanistic body with a rational, decision- making soul  Happened in the pineal gland • Has unitary nature • Along midline of the brain • Surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid o An animal behaviour is variable o Monism – mind and body are unitary The Recent History of Neuropsychology Cataloguing the Effects of Lesions • Legallois o Lesioning (destroying tissue in) the medulla resulted in the immediate cessation of breathing • Bell and Magendie o Dorsal roots had sensory function o Ventral roots were responsible for motor function • Gall o Cortex was functionally localized o If person was exceptionally wise, then the corresponding area of the brain also should be large  Measured using cranioscopy  Measurements of the skull and pronouncements on personality is phrenology • Flourens o If person was supposed to be a musical genius, look for a large bump and pronounce that this was the music center o Believer in the empirical method o Cerebellum was responsible for coordinated movement o Medulla performed vital functions of the organism o Following lesions, function may be restored  Support concept of cortical equipotentiality • No functional specialization within the cortex • Goltz o Only the size of the lesion, not the location of the lesion, affected the behaviour  Cortex could not be specialized for specific cognitive functions • Ferrier o Behavioural observations of decorticate dogs and monkeys are inconsistent with the position of cortical equipotentiality  Consistent with the localization of sensory and motor functions within discrete portions of the cortex • Fritsch and Hitzig o Proved theory of cortical equipotentiality wrong • Broca o First higher cognitive function successfully localized was language o Front cortex played role in production of speech o Broca did NOT study:  Emotional tone of speech (prosody) and loss of comprehension of language associated with the preservation of speech • Huglings-Jackson o Content and emotional tone of speech were separable o Observation that speech is a complex process that involves linguistic ability as well as complex motor skills • Wernicke o Wernicke’s area  Auditory centre in the temporal lobes that, when da
More Less

Related notes for PSYB65H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.