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PSYB65H3 (479)
Chapter 16

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 16: The Frontal Lobes (pgs430, 434) thus derive their information from the object-recognition or motor streams of sensory processing. Recall that both streams project to the prefrontal cortex, although to different places (see Figure 16.3), which suggests temporal memory for both motor and object information, although the memory will be localized in different places in the frontal cortex. The dorsolateral areas are especially engaged in the selection of behavior based on temporal memory. External Cues People whose temporal memory is defective become dependent on environmental cues to determine their behavior. That is, behavior is not under the control of internalized knowledge but is controlled directly by external cues. One effect of this condition is that people with frontal-lobe injuries have difficulty inhibiting behavior directed to external stimuli. In our dinner-party example, frontal-lobe patients would enter a shoe store or chat with friends as they responded to environmental cues that they encountered. We have probably all experienced occasions when the temporal organization of our behavior failed and we were controlled by external cues rather than internalized information. How many times have you started to do something, been distracted by a question or event, and then been unable to recall what you were going to do? (Sadly, this phenomenon increases with age, which is not reassuring information about the state of one’s prefrontal cortex.) One type of environmental cue is feedback about the rewarding properties of stimuli. For example, if you imagine that a certain stimulus, such as a photograph of your grandmo
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