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Chapter 7

Chapter 7 Textbook Notes

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Ted Petit

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PSYB65 Textbook notes Chapter 7: Memory 1 WHAT IS MEMORY Memory is not a unitary phenomenon. Memory: concerned with retrieving the information from where it was stored (retrieval). Learning: is a relatively permanent change in behavior as a function of experiences (concerned with attending to the information encoding, and storing it for later use consolidation). Learning and memory depend critically on one another, they are called experience-dependent behavior. Sensory Memory and Short-Term Memory Sensory Memory: turn a bright light in a dark room, look at the light, then turn it off. You can still see the image of the light. These sensory memories are short term. Iconic memory: visually based, very fragile, and reliant on peripheral stimuli (If you flash a certain info, then flash a bright light, the info would be erased) color, motion, and shape can all be stored in iconic memory. 2 sides of the brain perform it equally as well. Use of tachistoscope Echoic Memory: sound based, very fragile and temporary memory store. Very similar to iconic memory, just two different form of stimuli. Both iconic and echoic memories are converted to a more durable form of memory for the individual to recall. short-term memory. Short-term memory: responsible for holding information for periods beyond what can be stored by sensory memory, although like sensory traces, theyre not permanent. Can be in any sensory modality. Short-term visual memory: information stored much longer than just 2 seconds (unlike iconic memory). Does not get interrupted when there is a distraction (unlike iconic memory). Short-term auditory memory: information stored much longer, interruption causes barely any effects. listening repeating a speech with right ear while another speech is being played into the left. Chunking: improves your ability to hold larger sets of information in short-term memory. We can only hold 7 numbers in my short term memory, but we can somehow remember a long distance phone number like 1(306)867-5309. This is because theyre broken down into groups for us to Chunk. Brown-Peterson design: short-term memory is not a permanent store, theyre rapidly forgotten, especially if there is a distraction. Retroactive interference: the learning of new materials interferes with the recall of previously learned material. Proactive interference: new learning is disrupted by previously learned material. Trace discrimination theory: short-term memories begin to degrade spontaneously over time and that retrieval of short-term memory requires that the information be distinct from other pieces of stored information. Working Memory www.notesolution.com
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